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Dixie Industrial Finishing Company. 4925 S. Royal Atlanta Drive Tucker, GA 30084 (770) 934-7100 Jim Jones –Vice President Terry Windham, CEF – Sales/Quality. PLATING: What is it?.

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dixie industrial finishing company

Dixie Industrial Finishing Company

4925 S. Royal Atlanta Drive

Tucker, GA 30084

(770) 934-7100

Jim Jones –Vice President

Terry Windham, CEF – Sales/Quality

slide2

PLATING: What is it?

  • Also called electroplating, plating is the mechanically bonding of one metal to another for the purpose of corrosion protection, decorative appeal, hardness, electrical conductivity, reflectivity, and/or wear resistance
  • In a nut shell, plating modifies the surface properties of the base metal to make it more suitable for its intended use
typical properties achieved through plating
Corrosion resistance

Appearance

Abrasion resistance

Value (silver/gold, etc)

Solderability

Rubber Bonding

Electroforming

Electrical Resistance

Reflectivity

Diffusion Barrier

Lubricity

High Temp. Resistance

Typical Properties AchievedThrough Plating
critical steps in plating
CRITICAL STEPS IN PLATING
  • Racking/Loading (position, number of parts)
  • Amperage (amount of current for the number of parts)
  • Cleaning (strength, temperature, time)
  • Pickling/Acid (strength, temperature, time)
  • Rinsing (time, flow of water, cleanliness)
  • Plating process (Zn, Ni, Sn, Ag, Au, etc.)
  • Chromates (strength, pH, temperature, time, age of chromate)
  • Post-dips (strength, age, temperature, pH)
typical zinc plating cycle
Typical Zinc Plating Cycle

SOAK

CLEANER

ELECTRO-

CLEANER

RINSE

ACID

RINSE

Direction of Work Flow

PLATING

TANK

  • Multiple, counterflow rinses usually used
  • Pre-dips, post treatments. etc., may be used

RINSE

BRIGHT

DIP

Direction of Work Flow

DRY

HOT RINSE

CHROMATE

RINSE

BRIGHT DIP

RINSE

OTHER

CHROMATE

slide6

What happens to steel?

  • Steel is the cheapest structural material available for countless uses
  • However, steel is not very resistant to corrosion (red rust)

Red Rust

Steel Part

(Unplated)

Rust damages (pits) the surface of the base metal

slide7

The Plating Tank

ZINC

BALLS

(-)

+

+

Anode

Cathode

Anode

Zn++

Zn++

(-)

Zn++

Zn++

PART

Zn++

(-)

Zn++

Zn++

Zn++

Zn++

Zinc

Plating

Solution

slide8

What happens to zinc?

  • Zinc metal will corrode (white corrosion) if not protected by a chromate finish
  • As the zinc corrodes, it fails to protect the base metal and red rust of the base metal occurs

White corrosion

Zinc Plating

Steel Part

Rust damages (pits) the surface of the base metal

slide9

ZINC PLATED PART

Chromate

Finish

Plated Metal (Zinc)

Steel Part

  • The part is protected from corrosion by the zinc plating
  • The zinc plating is protected from corrosion by the chromate finish
types of chromates
Hexavalent

- Clear

- Yellow

- Bronze

- Black

- Olive Drab / Green

Trivalent

- Blue Bright (Clear)

*Thin Film

- Non-hex thick film passivates (non-colored, black). Can be dyed.

TYPES OF CHROMATES
hexavalent chromates
Hexavalent Chromates
  • Excellent corrosion protection properties
  • Fairly inexpensive
  • Easy / fast to apply @ room temperature
  • Variety of colors
  • Self-healing properties
  • Can not be baked
  • Carcinogenic / health issues
  • Considered environmentally non-friendly (do not meet ELV, RoHS, WEEE requirements)
why the elimination of hexavalent chromium
Why the elimination of hexavalent chromium?
  • To meet the requirements of ELV, RoHS and WEEE directives
  • Hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic by nature. Hexavalent chromium compounds can slip through cell membranes and react with DNA causing cell mutations/cancer
  • Hexavalent chromium is a strong oxidant that poses a threat to biological systems
slide13

Extended Life Vehicle (ELV)

  • Directive 2000/53/EC
  • Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr+6 Banned from automotive coatings as of 7-2007
  • Objective: prevention of waste from vehicles plus reuse, recycle, & recovery of end-of life vehicles & components. 85% recycled by 2006, 95% by 2015
  • Vintage & historic vehicles are exempted
  • Components, materials, as well as spare & replacement parts are also covered
  • Automotive component manufacturers to provide appropriate information to treatment facilities, concerning dismantling, & reuse
ELV
slide14
WEEE

WEEE

  • EC Directive on Waste from Electrical and ElectronicEquipment
  • 2002/96/EC Jan 2003
  • Required all 25 EU member states to implement into law within 18 months (Aug 2004) a requirement that appliances and electrical devices be manufactured in such a manner that they can be recycled/recovered at a recovery rate of 70-80% based on type of appliance.
  • As of 8-05 all EU members except Malta and UK had at least a framework regulation.

WEEE Man represents 3.3 tons of electronic waste generated by each citizen of the UK in a lifetime

slide15
RoHS

RoHS

  • RestrictionofHazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)
  • Directive (2002/95/EC)
  • As of July 1, 2006, this directive bans lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from all new electrical and electronic equipment sold to EU companies and manufactured in the EU.

Computer Hardware is Subject to RoHS Directive

Automotive Hardware is Subject to ELV Directive

weee and rohs product categories
WEEE and RoHS Product Categories
  • Large appliances
  • Small appliances
  • IT/telecom equipment
  • Consumer equipment
  • Lighting equipment
  • Electrical/electronic tools
  • Toys, sport equipment
  • Medical equipment *
  • Monitoring/control equipment *
  • Automatic dispensers

*Excluded by RoHS Directive

business issues for surface finishers manufacturers
Business Issues for Surface Finishers/Manufacturers
  • WEEE and RoHS Directives signal new trend toward “product regulation.”
  • Customers increasingly want to know the material content and planned end-of-life disposition for products they buy.
    • Achieve legal compliance
    • Promote“green procurement”
    • Corporate sustainability
    • Respond to stakeholders
non hexavalent passivates
Non-Hexavalent Passivates

Cons:

  • More expensive (contain expensive tri-chromium compounds, organic acids, and other metals)
  • Must be heated to apply (typically 140oF)
  • Slower to apply (increases cycle time)
  • Not self healing (require additional top coats for protection – more expense)
  • Lower corrosion protection than hexavalents (without topcoats/seals)
  • Less color variety (non-colored & black)
typical salt spray hours
TYPICAL SALT SPRAY HOURS
  • Clear Trivalent 12 – 24 hours
  • Clear Hexavalent 20 – 32 hours
  • Black Hexavalent 72 hours
  • Yellow Hexavalent 96 hours
  • Olive Drab / Green 168 hours
  • Non-hexavalent thick film 72 hours
  • Non-hexavalent black 36 – 72 hours
  • (all results are without seals/topcoats)
topcoats seals
Topcoats / Seals
  • There are a variety of topcoats / seals available. Silicated dips, polymers/lacquers, cross-linking polymers, lubricating seals (torque-n-tension compounds)
  • Silicated dips offer some self-healing help and increase corrosion protection. These are very thin and will not cause dimensional problems with fasteners
topcoats seals cont
Topcoats / Seals(cont.)
  • Polymers / lacquers offer enhanced corrosion protection as well as scratch resistance
  • Polymers / lacquers can pose some conductivity issues
  • Polymer / lacquer films can be thick and may cause fit/dimensional issues in fasteners, especially in threaded areas
  • Lubricating seals (torque-n-tension) offer enhanced corrosion protection, some self-healing help, and lubricity, changing torque values of the surface (automotive fastener requirements). These seals can be expensive to apply.
thank you
THANK YOU!
  • A big thanks to you for allowing us the opportunity to share this information with you today.
  • For questions or comments, we can be reached at:

Dixie Industrial Finishing Company, Tucker, GA

www.dixie-industrial.com

Jim Jones (770 908-7900)

jim@dixie-industrial.com

Terry Windham (770) 908-7909

terryw@dixie-industrial.com