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2005 空运部培训 讲师 : 刘伟慈 (JACKY LAU). INCOTERMS. EXW EX-WORK FCA FREE CARRIER FAS FREE ALONG SHIP CFR COST AND FREIGHT CIF COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT CPT CARRIAGE PAID TO CIP CARRIAGE, INSURANCE PAID TO DDU DELIVERY DUTY UPPAID DDP DELIVERY DUTY PAID.

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2005 空运部培训 讲师 : 刘伟慈 (JACKY LAU)


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    1. 2005 空运部培训 讲师: 刘伟慈 (JACKY LAU)

    2. INCOTERMS • EXW EX-WORK • FCA FREE CARRIER • FAS FREE ALONG SHIP • CFR COST AND FREIGHT • CIF COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT • CPT CARRIAGE PAID TO • CIP CARRIAGE, INSURANCE PAID TO • DDU DELIVERY DUTY UPPAID • DDP DELIVERY DUTY PAID

    3. COMMON USED INCOTERMS IN AIRFREIGHT • EXW • FOB • CFR(C&F) • CIF • DDU • DDP

    4. EXW • Sellers delivers when he places the good at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises without clearing for export and loading on any collecting vehicles • It implies the buyer has to bear all the shipping cost, including transportation and insurance etc., starts from factory to their own premises

    5. FOB • Free on board means the sellers deliver the goods when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment • It implies seller is only responsible for the cost starts from his own factory to the nominated place(warehouse) of buyer’s forwarder and the local charges • Buyer has to bear the all transportation cost from the port of departure to the port of destination • Seller responsible for the local charges of port of departure

    6. C&F • Cost & Freight means the sellers delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment • The seller has to pay all the cost necessary to bring the shipment to the named port of destination • Buyer is responsible for the local charges at the port of deatination • But the risk of loss and damage and any other occurs after the time of deliver, are transferred to the buyer

    7. CIF • Similar to C&F, CIF requires sellers to pay all the cost necessary to bring the shipment to the named port of destination (I.e. freight) PLUS the insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss and damage during the carriage

    8. DDU & DDP • Delivery Duty Unpaid means the sellers deliver the goods to the buyers, not cleared for import, to the named place of buyer. • Sellers has to bear all the cost and risk up to the destination • All the cost caused by custom and duty should be borne by the buyer as well as the extra cost caused by the failure of clearing the import in time.

    9. DDU & DDP • Delivery Duty Paid, similar to DDU, but requires seller to clear and pay all the cost and duties, clear the custom and deliver to the named place of the buyer. • Contrary to EXW, DDP shows the highest responsibility of seller in the carriage of goods.

    10. Major International Airfreight Organization • ICAO - International Civil AviationOrganization(国际民航组织 ) • FIATA - International of Freight Forwarders Association (国际货运代理人协会) • IATA - International AirTransport Association (国际航空运输协会 )

    11. ICAO • 国际民用航空组织是政府间的国际航空机构 • 成立于1947年4月4日,总部设在加拿大的蒙特利尔 • 宗旨为发展国际航行的原则和技术,并促进国际航空运输的规划和发展。

    12. FIATA • 国际货运代理人协会是国际货运代理人的行业组织 • 成立于1926年5月31日在奥地利维也纳,总部设在瑞士苏黎世 • 解决由于日益发展的国际货运代理业务所产生的问题,保障和提高国际货运代理在全球的利益,提高货运代理服务的质量。

    13. IATA • 国际航空运输协会是各国航空运输企业之间的组织,其会员包括全世界一百多个国家中经营国际、国内定期航班的航空公司 • 成立于1945年4月16日在古巴哈瓦那 • 国际航空货物运输中与运费的有关各项规章制度、运费水平都是由IATA统一协调、制定的。

    14. IATA Two main functions : • As a trade association (technical, legal, financial, traffic services and most agency matters) • As a tariff Coordination (passenger fares and cargo rates, agents' commissions)

    15. IATA Traffic Conference Areas • TC 1 : North, Mid and South America • TC 2 : Europe, Middle East, Africa • TC 3 : Asia, South Pacific region (Australia, New Zealand)

    16. Construction of airfreight rates • The elements in ALL-IN RATES • IATA Airfreight rates (GCR, SCR, Class) • Fuel Surcharges • Security Surcharges • Local charges

    17. Construction of airfreight rates • IATA Rates • General Cargo Rates (GCR) • Specific Commodity Rates • Class Rates

    18. Construction of airfreight rates • Specific Commodity Rates (SCR) – for specific commodity listed in IATA rates book • Usually lower than general cargo rates • When the class rate or the general cargo rate applicable to the consignment is lower than the Specific Commodity Rate, this lower rate can be applied.

    19. Construction of airfreight rates • Class rates – for particular commodities from a specified point of origin to a specified destination point • Example: Newspapers, Magazines, Live Animals, Baggage shipped as cargo • Class Rates take precedence over General Cargo Rates regardless of comparisons. • Usually higher than GCR, by adding percentage on it (e.g. Cold-blooded animal -150% of Normal GCR

    20. Construction of airfreight rates • General Cargo Rates – for general cargo, mostly applied • General cargo rates consist of minimum rate (M), normal rate (N), and lower charge in higher weight (Q). • Minimum rate (M) – the lowest charges for a shipment • Normal rate (N) – rate for shipment under 45kgs • Q rate – lower charge in higher weight (+45kg. +100kg, +300kg)

    21. Construction of airfreight rates • The elements in ALL-IN RATES • IATA Airfreight rates (GCR, SCR, Class) • Fuel Surcharges • Security Surcharges • Local charges

    22. Construction of airfreight rates • Airline Fuel Surcharge • Will be adjusted according to the oil price • Current Fuel surcharge in HK • Area 1,2 - HKD 3.20/KG • Area 3 - HKD 1.60/KG

    23. Construction of airfreight rates • The elements in ALL-IN RATES • IATA Airfreight rates (GCR, SCR, Class) • Fuel Surcharges • Security Surcharges • Local charges

    24. Construction of airfreight rates • Airline Security Surcharge • After the terrorist attack of 911 event, insurance companies imposed a high insurance premium on airlines who carry passengers or cargoes • Insurance surcharge adjust with the current political situation • Current Security Surcharge • HKD 1.20/kg

    25. Construction of airfreight rates • The elements in ALL-IN RATES • IATA Airfreight rates (GCR, SCR, Class) • Fuel Surcharges • Security Surcharges • Local charges

    26. Construction of airfreight rates • Local Charges in Hong Kong • Terminal Handling Charges • MIN HKD 60.00/SHPT OR HKD 1.71/KG • CFS • MIN HKD 160.00/SHPT OR HKD 0.70/KG • AIRLINE DOCUMENT • HKD 15.00/SHPT • HANDLING • HKD 283.00/SHPT • CARTAGE (ON REQUEST) • HKD 480.00/CONSIGNMENT OR HKD 1.48/KG • TOLL FEE • HKD 40.00

    27. Construction of airfreight rates • Local Charges in Shenzhen • Terminal Handling Charges: • RMB 0.65/KG • Custom Clearance Fee • RMB 250.00/consignment • AIRLINE DOCUMENT • RMB 50.00/SHPT

    28. Construction of airfreight rates • Local Charges in Guangzhou • 商检换证: • RMB 100.00/SHPT • Custom Clearance Fee • RMB 300.00/consignment • AIRLINE DOCUMENT • RMB 50.00/SHPT

    29. Calculation of airfreight rates • Total air freight rates = Chargeable weight x airfreight rates /kilo • Chargeable weight is the higher one between actual weight and volume weight • Volume weight = Length x Width x Height (cm) / 6000 or Volume(CBM) x 167

    30. 空运价格变动的成因 • 供应需求的变化 • 季节性 –旺/淡季 • 一般空运出口旺季多在欧美节日或长假前, 如复活节(4月),圣诞节(12月), 欧洲暑假(6-7月)。空运价格多数会因需求大幅增加而往上调 • 而在淡季期期, 如5-6月, 航空公司亦会因需求减少而对运价作适当下调, 希望可以吸引更多货量 • 突如其来的需求变动 • 2002年尾美国西岸码头大摆工,货柜无法如期到达,发货人为使货物能赶及圣诞黄金档,便改用空运,使空运量大增,空运价亦几何级数调升 • 某货代包机货量未达指标(payload),为减少亏损,在航班起飞前大幅降低价格,吸引更多货量,填补空缺

    31. 空运价格变动的成因 • 燃油附加费调整 • 燃油附加费会随油价调整 • 航空公司兵险费 • 兵险费会随世界政治局势调整

    32. Bulk Shipment VS Consolidated Shipment • Bulk Shipment • Shipment handed to airline in its original form, without pre-package • All charges based on the chargeable weight of that particular shipment • Consolidated Shipment • Shipments are consolidated and pre-packed, on airline’s ULD (Unit Load Device) • All charges based on the chargeable weight of that ULD.

    33. Cargo Consolidation • Consolidate numerous smaller shipments into one bigger shipment • Airfreight rates per kg is lower with higher weight break (Quality rates) • Smaller shipment may enjoy the lower rates when shipments are consolidated which is able to reach higher weight

    34. 装板(CONSOLIDATING)利润的概念 • 如把重货与抛货集合, 经过适当的安排及计算, 装板人(CONSOLIDATOR)的利润可以是非常可观的。以下是装板(CONSOLIDATING)利润的简单概念:

    35. 装板(CONSOLIDATING)利润的概念 SHIPMENT A VOLUME WEIGHT(体积重) 700KG ACTUAL WEIGHT(实重) 200KG SHIPMENT B VOLUME WEIGHT(体积重) 400KG ACTUAL WEIGHT(实重) 1000KG SHIPMENT C VOLUME WEIGHT(体积重) 300KG ACTUAL WEIGHT(实重) 400KG

    36. 装板(CONSOLIDATING)利润的概念 • 基於空运价格是按实重与体积重较高者计算, 如把以上三单货装在一堍板上, CONSOLIDATOR要付出的重量应为实重1600KG (VOL. WEIGHT 1400KG ACTUAL 1600KG)。 • 但CONSOLIDATOR则可向其客户收取共2100KG的运费。(A, 700KG + B, 1000KG + C, 400KG)。中间的净利润为500KG的运费。

    37. 空运出口操作程序 1.客户发给我司空运委托单及全套出口文件 2.操作接受委托单後, 向航空公司或同行根据委托单资料订舱及确认运价 3.按客户要求, 安排收货 4.操作根据客户资料准备文件,包括: 主提单Master Airway Bill, 副提单House Airway Bill, 出口货物清单Cargo Manifest 5.货物到达我司仓库後, 会被再量重及量体积, 并贴上空运条码

    38. 空运出口操作程序 6.将货物送往机场空运站 7.机场空运站再次量重及量体积, 列印出‘磅码纸’ 8.根据‘磅码纸’上的体重及体积资料, 输入在主提单上(MAWB), 完成所有出口文件 9.发空运预报(Pre-alert, 包括主提单, 副提单, 出口货物清单)予海外代理

    39. 空运出口操作程序 10.发副提单及发票给客户以证明我司已把货物运出 11.货物到达目的港後,海外代理通知收货人 12.按收货人要求,海外代理安排清关送货或将文件交予收货人清关行

    40. Airway Bill • 货运单一式八联。其中正本三联,副本五联。三联正本具有同等法律效力 • 第一联:正本3,蓝色,为托运人联。作为托运人支付货物运费、并将货物交由承运人运输的凭证。 • 第二联:正本1,绿色,为财务联。作为收取货物运费的凭证交财务部门。 • 第三联:副本7,白色,为第一承运人联。由第一承运人留交其财务部门作为结算凭证。

    41. Airway Bill • 第四联:正本2,粉红色,为收货人联。在目的站交收货人 • 第五联:副本4,黄色,为货物交付联。收货人提取货物时在此联签字,由承运人留存,作为货物已经交付收货人的凭证。 • 第六联:副本5,白色,为目的站联。由目的站机场留存,也可作为第三承运人联,由第三承运人留交其财务部门作为结算凭证。

    42. Airway Bill • 第七联:副本6,白色,为第二承运人联。由第二承运人留交其财务部门作为结算凭证 • 第八联:副本8,白色,为代理人联(存根联)。由货运单填置人留存备查 • 货运单的三联正本具有同等法律效力。一联交承运人;一联交收货人;一联交托运人,分别由托运人签字或盖章,由承运人接受货物后签字或盖章 • 货运单的承运人联应当自填开次日起保存两年。

    43. Functions of Airway Bill • Contract between shipper and carrier • Different from Ocean Bill of Lading, airway bill is not merely a certificate of contract, itself is the contract between shipper and the cargo carrier • Receipt of the cargo from carrier or its agent • Proof of carriage • Airway proves carrier has performed the carriage, with the freightage and charges shown on AWB, it can be used for collecting freightage from shipper

    44. Functions of Airway Bill • Reminder: Unlike ocean bill of lading, airway bill is not transferable. The procession of airway bill does not present the title of goods.

    45. Routing of Airlines • Priority of airfreight carriage • Passenger • Unaccompanied baggage • Cargoes • Freedom of the air (航权)

    46. Routing of Airlines • 第一航权: 领空飞越权 • 第二航权: 技术经停权 • 第三航权: 目的地下客和货权 • 第四航权: 目的地上客和货权 • 第五航权: 经停第三国境内某点上下旅客或货物权

    47. Useful Links • Shipment track and trace www.redberry.com/track.php • Airport www.hkairport.com香港机场 www.szairport.com深圳机场 www.shanghaiairport.com上海机场有限公司

    48. Routing order • A shipping instruction send from the forwarder to its oversea’s agent. • Mostly used for import shipment • Example : Hercules send a routing order to Skynet(Italy) for our import shipment from Italy • Can also be used for triangle business • Example : Hercules send a routing to Sky(Italy) for a air shipment from Milan to Bangkok, Thailand

    49. Sales Lead • Sales information given to our oversea’s agent for FOB shipment • A qualified sales lead should contain: • Full Contact info of shipper • Contact info of consignee • Description on the potential traffic e.g. volume, existing rates used by shipper

    50. 空运询价八要素 • 1、品名;(决定是否可承运货物,是否危险品) • 2、毛重;(报价之重要参数,是否单件超重) • 3、体积或尺寸;(有无超大件,是否轻泡货) • 4、所需运输服务;(是否需要上门提货,清关派送,包税进出口) • 5、包装;(是否木箱、有无托盘) • 6、目的地;(重要参数) • 7、报关方式;(是否需要商检,代办单证,代理快递报关等) • 8、出货期和预计抵达日期。(配载用重要参数,关系到有无特价)