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  1. The Rise of Urban America II Public Policy Urban Affairs (PPUA) G6201 WEEK 3 The 21st Century City: Urban Opportunities and Challenges in a Global Context Presentation of: Barry Bluestone (Northeastern) Russ Williams (Wheaton College)

  2. Urban America in the 19th Century From Jefferson’s Rural America to the City of America’s Industrial Revolution

  3. Post WW II Industrialization Pre-Civil War

  4. The Importance of Scale The Rise of the 19th – 20th Century Cities

  5. Scale Economies • Large Manufacturing Facilities • Services that require a critical population mass (e.g Department Stores, Museums) • Major League Sports • Public Transportation

  6. Large Scale Reduces Costs … up to a point and large scale means centralization Figure 3.3 A Typical Long Run Average Cost Curve

  7. Where does Production take Place? Resource Sites Production Sites Consumption Sites

  8. 19th Century/20th Century Transportation costs were so high that location depended on minimizing transport costs

  9. Transportation Costs for a Resource-Oriented Firm (also called a materials-oriented firm): Michaelangelo’s Marble A Resource Site Market

  10. Transportation Costs for a Market-Oriented Firm: The Downtown Department Store; the Barber Shop B Resource Site Market

  11. The Weber Location Polygon for Two Resource Sitesand a Single Market Russ C • Steel Production • Taconite from Duluth • Coal from West Virginia • Limestone from Michigan


  13. Urban Activities: Where do they Take Place? Central Business District Wholesale-Light Manufacturing Low-class Residential Middle-class Residential High-class Residential Heavy Manufacturing Outlying Business District Residential Suburb Industrial Suburb Commuter Zone Russ

  14. Russ

  15. Russ The Bid Rent Curve and the effect of a change in product price or a change in transportation costs

  16. Russ Bid Rent Curves for two different uses of land and the resulting land distribution

  17. Russ The Residential Paradox

  18. The 21st Century City

  19. Table 4.1 Percent of Metropolitan Population Living in Central Cities Year Percent in Central Cities 1910 64.6 1920 66.0 1930 64.6 1940 62.7 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1950 58.6 1960 51.4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2000 37.4 Growth of Suburbs Forces of Centralization up to 1920 (Centripetal Forces) Forces of Decentralization after 1920 (Centrifugal Forces)

  20. The Case the Local Grocery Store Cost to Customers of Reaching the Marketplace Total Cost A Transportation Cost Labor Cost Site Cost Miles from Central City

  21. The Location Decision under Conditions of High Site Costs and Rising Transportation Costs – Auto Production in the Post World War II Era (Suburban Production) Total Cost B Transportation Cost Labor Cost Site Cost Miles from Central City

  22. The Location Decision under Conditions of Zero Transportation Costs and Steeply Falling Labor Costs – The 21st Century Location Model Total Cost C Site Cost Labor Cost Transportation Cost Miles from Center City

  23. Manufacturing Still Dominates

  24. Moving toward the Post-Industrial World

  25. Barry The New Postindustrial World

  26. The Polarization of Metro Areas

  27. Russ Family and Neighborhood Income Profile, 100 Largest Metro Areas, 1970-2000 (Percentage Shares)

  28. Next Week The Meaning of Urban Community Barry Shrage President, Combined Jewish Philanthropies James Carroll author, novelist, columnist for the Boston Globe

  29. The 21st Century City Q & A / Discussion