Untreated chlamydial infection among adolescents and young adults in Baltimore, MD. Elizabeth Eggleston, DrPH 1 ; Susan M. Rogers, PhD 1 ; Charles F. Turner, PhD 2 , Anthony Roman, MA 3 ; Sylvia Tan, MS 1 ; Emily Erbelding, MD, MPH 4
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Elizabeth Eggleston, DrPH1; Susan M. Rogers, PhD1; Charles F. Turner, PhD2, Anthony Roman, MA3; Sylvia Tan, MS1; Emily Erbelding, MD, MPH4
(1) Statistics and Epidemiology, Research Triangle Institute, Washington, DC; (2) Queens College, City University of New York; (3) Center for Survey Research, University of Massachusetts-Boston; (4) Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
Presented atThe 136th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association San Diego, CA • October 25–29, 2008
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Among women, untreated chlamydia may result in pelvic inflammatory disease (a major cause of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain)
Among men, CT associated with urethritis & epididymitis.
Untreated CT infections facilitate HIV transmission among both men & women
Laboratories and medical providers required by law to report diagnosed cases of chlamydia.
Reported cases represent only those infections that are detected and, presumably, treated.
Chlamydia infections are usually asymptomatic; 75% women and 50% men have no symptoms.
Surveillance data reflect standard screening practices – CDC recommends testing all sexually active women under age 26 annually.
Continuous monitoring of three STIs (CT, Tv, GC) over three years in Baltimore, starting in 2006
Designed to address shortcomings of current surveillance methods (incomplete coverage, skewed in response to screening norms)
Funding provided by NICHD
Collaboration between RTI, Univ. of Mass-Boston, UNC-Chapel Hill, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine/BCHD
Data collection via TACASI interview and mailed-in urine specimens
Study participants: aged 15-35, male and female, English speaking
In Year 1 (Sept 06 – Aug 07), 1248 Baltimore residents aged 15-35 completed a TACASI interview; 69% (n=866) provided a urine specimen.
We calculate prevalence estimates of CT in the population.
We assess associations between demographic/behavioral characteristics and CT prevalence using chi-square tests.
We compare our study data to BCHD surveillance data.
All MSSP data are weighted.
Cases of CT infection reported to Baltimore City Health Dept. (BCHD) by medical providers and laboratories
Percentages for population prevalences calculated using 2000 U.S. Census reports of population size as denominator
Surveillance data grouped by age using U.S. Census age categories
MSSP data presented for comparison with same age categories
Nearly 5% of 15-35 year-olds had an undetected chlamydial infection in MSSP.
CT prevalence slightly higher among males and among blacks, but small sample sizes limit generalizability of these findings.
Infections most prevalent among 18-23 year olds, those with least education
Having multiple partners strongly associated with CT infection, even as few as 2 in past year.
Previous infection strong predictor of current infection.
Comparison of MSSP to surveillance data suggests that undiagnosed, untreated CT infections among 15-34 year-olds exceed diagnosed/reported infections by a factor of 1.3.
Ct prevalence in MSSP higher among males than females, while opposite pattern emerges in surveillance data -- suggesting need for increased Ct screening among males.