Documentation. In-Text Citations (parenthetical) Citing Quoting References Traditional (periodicals and non-periodicals) Electronic resources. In-Text Citations. In-Text Citation: One Author. In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 1998), it was found that ... .
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Documentation • In-Text Citations (parenthetical) • Citing • Quoting • References • Traditional (periodicals and non-periodicals) • Electronic resources
In-Text Citation: One Author • In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 1998), it was found that ... . • Jones (1998) compared student performance ... . • In 1998, Jones compared student performance ... . Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
In-Text Citation: Multiple Articles on Same Subject • Recent studies of student performance (Jones, 1998; Smith & Brown, 1997), it was found that ... . • Jones (1998) compared student performance ... . In another study, Smith and Brown (1997) … . Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
In-Text Citation: Three to Five Authors A recent study of student performance (Johnson, Smith, Brown & Wagner, 1999), it was found that ... Students who studied less than ten hours a week had a significantly lower … (Johnson et al, 1999). Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
In-Text Citation: Interviews • Personal communications include: letters, memos, email, interviews, etc. • Included in text but excluded in references since they are not recoverable. • Examples: • J.A. Smith (personal communication, April 10, 2003) • (J.A. Smith, personal communication, April 10, 2003) Source: APA Publication Manual, 5th Edition.
In-Text Citation: Short Quotations(< 40 words) • According to Jones (1998), a seasoned writing instructor, “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199). • Sarah Jones, a seasoned writing instructor stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. • Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
In-Text Citation: Web Page Source Mayor Smith stated, “we chose prescription drugs re-importation because we had no other options," (Mackey, 2004, ¶5), and she explained the budget crisis with which the city was faced.
In-Text Citation: Long Quotations(>40 words) Jones's 1993 study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help when they didn’t understand something. There is help available when students look for it. (p. 199) Quote is indented AND there are no quotation marks used. This style of quotation is for quotes longer than 40 words. Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
In-Text Citation: No Authors • In a similar study of students learning to format research paper, … (“Using APA,” 2000). Citation:No Author and No Date • In another study of students and research decisions, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.). Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
References: Book Author, Year of Publication, Source Reference Author, A. (Year).Title of work.Location: Publisher.
References: Book (cont’d) Tiwana, A. (2000).The knowledge management toolkit: Practical techniques for building a knowledge management system.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. In Text Citation:Knowledge management systems developed in the last decade … (Tiwana, 2000). According to Tiwana (2000) … .
References: Edited Book Author, A. (Year).Title of article. In A. Editor (Ed.), Book title(pp. xxx-xxx).Location: Publisher.
References: Edited Book (cont’d) Fink, D. (2000).Developing trust for electronic commerce. In L. Janczewski (Ed.), Internet and intranet security management: Risks and solutions (pp. 39-80). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. In Text Citation:Major issues concerning e-commerce and information security … (Fink, 2000). According to Fink (2000) … .
References: Book Editions Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987).People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
References: Journal Article Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of article.Name of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Volume number – in Italics Page number range – not in Italics
References: Journal Article(cont’d) Wirth, D. P., & Mitchell, B.J. (1994).Complementary healing therapy for patients with Type I diabetes mellitus.Journal of Scientific Exploration, 8, 367-377. In Text Citation:Research on Type I diabetes patients … (Wirth & Mitchell, 1994). … as Wirth and Mitchell explained in their article (1994) … .
References: Journal Article(cont’d) If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Wirth, D. P., & Mitchell, B.J. (1994).Complementary healing therapy for patients with Type I diabetes mellitus.Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2(4), 12-36.
References: Online Resources Journal Article from Aggregated Database like ProQuest or EBSCOhost: Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000).A closer look at the drug abuse-material aggression link.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 503-522.Retrieved October 1, 2002, from ProQuest database.
References: Online Resources (cont’d) Web Document: Group Author: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002).Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs — United States, 1995–1999.Retrieved October 24, 2002, from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/economics/mmwr5114.highlights.htm In Text Citation: (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2002) (CDC, 2002)
References: Online Resources (cont’d) Web Document: No Author, No DateInformation architecture and usability. (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2002, from: http://www.ias.net/articles/ia.htm In Text Citation: Users’ on line experience depends on … (“Information Architecture,” n.d.)
References: Online Resources (cont’d) Group Author or Title: If from well known government agencies, private groups, universities AND Article contents closely related to the nature of the organization or a large section of the site, then use organization as group author Otherwise, use article title (for docs from stand-alone web sites)
References: Online Resources (cont’d) Web Document: News Magazine:Wilcox, J. (2002, November 4).Microsoft ruling may blunt other cases.Retrieved November 4, 2002, fromhttp://news.com.com/2100-1001-964366.html?tag=fd_top. In Text Citation: According to Wilcox (2002) (Wilcox, 2002)
References: Online Resources (cont’d) Citing an Entire Website: In Text Citation: CNET offers good technical resources(http:// www.cnet.com) No reference entry is needed.
IMPORTANT ! • Paraphrase other authors’ wording whenever possible. Don’t cut corners by using cut-and-paste to put a lot of direct quotes into your report. Even if properly cited, excessive quotations will lower your grade significantly. • Use the Purdue Online Writing Lab for more about how to paraphrase. Click on this link: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/research/r_paraphr.html
Good Luck and Good Writing!