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UNDP-RBAS CLIMATE RESILIENCE INITIATIVE. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE ARAB REGION: Towards Sustainable Energy – Resources, Challenges and Opportunities Kingdom of Bahrain, October 6-7, 2010. PANEL III: Knowledge and Technology Transfer Research in the Arab Region from a Development Lens .

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panel iii knowledge and technology transfer research in the arab region from a development lens

UNDP-RBAS CLIMATE RESILIENCE INITIATIVE

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE ARAB REGION:

Towards Sustainable Energy – Resources, Challenges and Opportunities

Kingdom of Bahrain, October 6-7, 2010

PANEL III: Knowledge and Technology TransferResearch in the Arab Region from a Development Lens

NesreenGhaddar,

Associate Provost & Qatar Chair in Energy Studies Professor

American University of Beirut

panel iii knowledge and technology transfer
Panel III:Knowledge and Technology Transfer

Kingdom of Bahrain, October 7, 2010, 9:00 - 11:00 am

Introduction of Speakers

Research in the Arab Region from a Development Lens

Academic Institutional Perspectives:

King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)

University of Bahrain

Qatar Foundation

Role of Civil Societies: Arab Network for Environment and Development

Technology Transfer: National Oil and Gas Authority, Bahrain

Discussion

Opportunities for Inter-Arab Cooperation

presentation focus
Presentation Focus
  • The “energy” research agenda
  • Recommendations to enhance appropriate research and address the existing challenges
  • Regional opportunities for interventions and collaboration within the region that would support advancing the climate change agenda.
overview of current research on energy efficiency ee and renewable energy re in the arab region
Overview of Current Research on Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) in the Arab region
  • Three sub-regions

(Geographic connectivity, climatic zoning, socio economic aspects, natural resources and development status):

    • States of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
    • Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
    • Sub-Saharan countries.

MENA has milder climates than GCC region, denser population and unequal distribution of wealth with substantial population living in rural areas.

why re and ee focus
Why RE and EE Focus?
  • Current Arab region strategic energy options extend beyond oil and gas. Renewable energy and energy efficiency now rank high on national policy agendas.
  • The Six GCC countries will invest $200 billion in 120 renewable energy projects, to be implemented in the next two decades.

Some examples of countries policy goals:

- KSA aims to generate to produce enough solar energy for local consumption and for export, within 30-50 years.

-Abu Dhabi aims to generate as much as 7% of its energy through renewable sources (planned investments reaching 22 billion dollars).

-Algeria aims to generate 5% of electricity by 2015 and 10% by 2025.

-Jordan aims to generate as much as 7% of its energy from RE sources by 2015 and 10% by 2020; solar capacity is expected to reach 300 – 600 MW over the same period

-Egypt electricity generated by renewable sources will reach 20% by 2020.

-Morocco’s target for RE is to reach 42% by the year 2020.

-Tunisia aims at decreasing its energy intensity by 3% per year and to satisfy 4% of electricity demand through the use of RE by 2012.

-Lebanon’s target for RE is 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013.

There is therefore a growing demand to expertise in renewable energy technology developments. and energy systems

ee and re focus in research
EE and RE Focus in Research
  • More funding is available to prepare for the demands of the new labor markets of green energy businesses and product investments.
  • Serious research output relevant to the local market is taking place and is attracting students and faculty to contribute to the development of knowledge at home.
  • More local research funds open to researchers outside borders of own country: the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF), KACST, and The Arab Science and Technology Foundation (ASTF, UAE)
ee and re research agenda energy supply and alternative energy technologies 1
EE and RE Research AgendaEnergy Supply and Alternative Energy Technologies (1)
  • Analysis of power sector and Power Plant Efficiency.
  • Resource Assessment for generation and storage (solar thermal, wind, biomass. Geothermal, PV)
  • Thermo chemical hydrogen generation technologies via concentrated solar energy.
  • Hybrid wind-diesel generation and storage.
  • Power plants efficiency
  • Hydropower (MENA).
  • Integrated renewable energy farms.
ee and re research agenda energy supply and alternative energy technologies 2
EE and RE Research Agenda Energy Supply and Alternative Energy Technologies (2)

In the past two years research has shifted towards fundamental research work (mostly in GCC):

  • Study of aerodynamic design of wind turbine blades configuration to enhance wind turbines performance.
  • Solar assisted method for the recovery of bitumen from oil sand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way.
  • Smart electrical grid.
  • Optimized energy storage and chiller system operation
  • Nano materials in low to high-temperature collectors, photovoltaic materials and thin films for direct electricity conversion.
  • Building-integrated photovoltaic systems
  • Advanced material research to develop high performance thin film PV cells for the generation of electricity at competitive cost to fossil-derived electricity.
ee and re research agenda sustainable water production
EE and RE Research Agenda Sustainable Water Production
  • Atmospheric water extraction. The least damaging method to Gulf sea water due to increased brine rejected from the multiple water desalination plants on its shore. Solar-driven humidification–dehumidification desalination for small-scale decentralized water production.
    • Combined cooling and water production systems
    • Solar Ponds.
    • Tri-generation: Electricity, water and cooling in one plant.
  • Strategy, water management, and policy on desalination.
  • Hybrid wind/PV and conventional power for sea water reverse osmosis desalination.
  • Nuclear desalination (Egypt and Morocco)
  • Use of ocean wave energy for desalination (Sub-Sahara Region)
    • Research in Jordan has put great emphasis on desalination systems that are based on renewable energy sources due to water scarcity in the country.
ee and re research agenda energy efficient building systems processes
EE and RE Research Agenda Energy Efficient Building Systems & Processes
  • Energy conservation measures in buildings were focus of research in the last two decade in GCC to develop thermal guidelines or codes for buildings.
  • Zero-investment operational strategies of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system operation for energy conservation and thermal comfort in commercial buildings.
  • Sustainable Building Indices.
  • Carbon-neutral cities.
  • Hybrid air conditioning systems with independent systems of removal of sensible and latent loads have high potential for energy savings, either through optimized operation or by integrating renewable energy sources in the operation.
  • Integrated desiccant dehumidification/humidification with air conditioning system for cooling and water production.
  • Advanced modeling methods and optimization tools.
  • Smart building design (envelop, systems, and people)
research and development targets universities perspective
Research and Development Targets (Universities’ Perspective)
  • Energy Supply Technologies (smart grid, hybrid plants and optimized storage and use systems)
  • Energy, Cooling and Innovative Water Production Technologies and Systems.
  • Energy Efficiency Technologies for Buildings including RE Services and Product Development.
  • Energy related materials and nanotechnology.
  • Renewable Energy Services and Product Development.
  • Energy Education and Training (GCC &MENA)
  • Energy Policy Development (GCC, MENA!)
major opportunities of interventions to enhance sustainable energy practices
Major Opportunities of Interventions to Enhance Sustainable Energy Practices
  • Engage and Involve the Intellectual Human Capital (faculty, researchers, students) in the development of the Arab region to become Active Participants in the technology transfer and policy development.
  • Allocate central funding agency for Arab Countries on R&D to improve renewable technologies and green buildings and their energy uses similar to GEF, EU, & NSF, but addressing EE & RE and allocating funds on competitive basis.
  • Enforce policies that require from major companies and businesses to contribute to research funding available to universities and scholars solving local problems and adapting new technologies to local needs.

Who should be the champion for each recommendation?

major opportunities of interventions to enhance sustainable energy practices1
Major Opportunities of Interventions to Enhance Sustainable Energy Practices
  • Introduce interdisciplinary education for energy programs that provide an integrated approach to energy problems.
  • Dedicate funding to university programs that can partner with the industry to work on energy problems and develop green energy products and services.
  • Establish support to enterprises and companies spinning off from universities as outcome of research results for development of products and services and business plan.

Who should be the champion for each recommendation?

major opportunities of interventions to enhance sustainable energy practices2
Major Opportunities of Interventions to Enhance Sustainable Energy Practices
  • Institute study abroad programs among regional universities and faculty exchange.
  • Institute administrative structures within universities that promote regional cooperation among researchers in Arab universities to build on shared knowledge and adjust to needs and research priorities that serve home countries.
  • Learn from successful models of Partnerships developed between EC and US universities with universities in GCC or MENA.
  • Develop incentive plans to faculty members to continue their focus on quality in depth research and knowledge generation.
  • Universities should mentor faculty to change their approach to work so as to focus on long term projects that will lead to strategic development of new research and educational programs.

Who should be the champion for each recommendation?

development of energy policies
Development of Energy Policies
  • Arab countries have also begun addressing the diversification of, their energy generation resources even though they may have plenty of oil and gas resources
  • The development of policies for energy generation and use require careful consideration of local materials, climate, culture, and business practices
  • The implementation of policies needs the commitment of many stakeholders, and investment by the government to provide accountability.
  • Compliance with energy standards by businesses and international companies providing energy services or implementing projects can be enforced and rewarded.
human resource development and mobility in the arab region
Human Resource Development and Mobility in the Arab Region

Energy focused education in engineering, policy, and economics majors will be in high demand, and universities need to prepare the students to meet these needs in an integrated multi- and inter-disciplinary way.

  • Establish innovative university programs that develop students’ critical thinking skills and be more innovative if they are to enhance the expansion of the green energy market.
  • The GCC is expanding beyond its local labor capacity and attracts skilled labor from the MENA region.
  • GCC investors may find an opportunity to expand their investments for private power generation in MENA countries.
slide17

Recommendations for Enabling the Green Market

  • Reform policies to expand the green market so that renewable energy products and services are affordable and attractive.
  • Educational interdisciplinary programs that prepare green energy professionals and entrepreneurs to promote and market energy services.
  • Empower and support public and research facilities that can provide certification of locally and imported energy products.
  • Invest in supporting centers that publish online data access to public domain with information needed for the assessment of energy products-including climatic and solar data and bench-marked energy service prices.
  • Engage universities, professional societies, NGOs in public awareness campaigns that are based on locally generated data to promote the practice of sustainable energy.
example on educational driven research aims for an energy lab aub
Example on Educational Driven Research Aims for an Energy Lab (AUB):

We Aim to:

  • Integrate renewable energy resources in all aspects of building energy systems.
  • Develop and Design in smart building systems and materials towards Zero Net Energy Building

- Have green spaces on campus so that students live this experience and later impact the society.

- Study all aspects of human comfort, clothing performance, contaminant transport in air, and environmental energy systems performance all linked to climate, architectural practices, local clothing choices, and culture.