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Definition of Learning:. A generally accepted definition of learning is any relatively permanent change in human behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

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definition of learning
Definition of Learning:

A generally accepted definition of learning isany relatively permanent change in human behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

Midchell has defined learning as the process by which new behaviors are acquired. It is generally agreed that learning involves changes in behavior, practicing new behaviors and establishing permanency in the change.

student learning style
Student Learning Style
  • Active Learning Style: Research shows clearly that a student must be engaged to learn. Students learn by actively participating in observing, speaking, writing, listening, thinking, drawing, and doing
  • Learning is enhanced when a student sees potential implications, applications, and benefits to others
  • Learning builds on current understanding (including misconceptions!).
student learning style1
Student Learning Style

Active And Reflective Learners:

  • Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it--discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.
  • "Let's try it out and see how it works" is an active learner's phrase; "Let's think it through first" is the reflective learner's response.
  • Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone.
  • Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners.
student learning style2
Student Learning Style
  • What messages we get from the previous slide for our course design?
  • If student learning is the goal, effective teaching means creating effective learning environments, and environments where students are actively participating and engaged with the material are crucial to student learning
  • Students are more likely to learn and retain if we ask them to do more than learn information. Including activities where students can explore applications and implications will improve learning
  • A traditional lecture classroom focused on presentation of content by an instructor does not typically promote active participation and engagement.
  • How do we identify those learners then?
index of learning styles questionnaire
Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire
  • I understand something better after I(a) try it out.(b) think it through.
  • I would rather be considered(a) realistic.(b) innovative.
  • When I think about what I did yesterday, I am most likely to get(a) a picture.(b) words.
  • I tend to(a) understand details of a subject but may be fuzzy about its overall structure.(b) understand the overall structure but may be fuzzy about details.
index of learning styles questionnaire1
Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire
  • When I am learning something new, it helps me to(a) talk about it.(b) think about it.
  • If I were a teacher, I would rather teach a course(a) that deals with facts and real life situations.(b) that deals with ideas and theories.

7. I prefer to get new information in(a) pictures, diagrams, graphs, or maps.(b) written directions or verbal information

the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education
The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education:

From this study, Chickering and Gamson (1997) formulatedThe Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education:

  • Encourage contacts between students and faculty.
  • Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students.
  • Use active learning techniques.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Emphasize time on task.
  • Communicate high expectations.
  • Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
principles for good practice in adult education
Principles for Good Practice in Adult Education
  • Stephen Brookfield's Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning (1986) summarized six leading principles of adult education:
  • voluntary participation in learning
  • mutual respect among participants
  • collaborative facilitation
  • a praxis approach to teaching/learning
  • the necessity of critical reflection upon the breadth of life, and
  • a proactive and self-directed empowerment of participants.
learning organisation lo
  • Learning might be the acquisition of a new skills, new knowledge, a modified attitude or a combination of all three.
  • The process of acquiring knowledge through experience that leads to a change in behaviour.
learnin organisation contd

An organization that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change:

  • Systems thinking
  • Personal mastery
  • Mental models
  • Shared vision
  • Team learning
learning organisation contd

Garvin (1993) has suggested that LO are good at doing five things:

  • Systematic problem solving-relying on scientific methods, insisting on data rather than assumption.
  • Experimentation-Kaizen (continuous improvements)
  • Learning from past experience
  • Learning from others
  • Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organisation
six factor model of lo

Kandola and Fullerton have produced a six factor model of a LO:

  • Shared vision
  • Enabling structure
  • Supportive culture
  • Empowering management
  • Motivated workforce
  • Enhanced learning
david kolb s learning styles model
David Kolb's learning styles model

David Kolb'sExperiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development(1984) theorized that four combinations of perceiving and processing determine four learning styles that make up a learning cycle. According to Kolb, the learning cycle involves four processes that must be present for learning to occur:

  • Diverging (CE/RO)
  • Assimilating (AC/RO)
  • Converging (AC/AE)
  • Accommodating (CE/AE)
david kolb s learning styles model1
David Kolb's learning styles model

Kolb includes this 'cycle of learning' as a central principle his experiential learning theory, typically expressed as four-stage cycle of learning, in which 'immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for 'observations and reflections'. Kolb's model therefore works on two levels - a four-stage cycle:

  • Concrete Experience - (CE)
  • Reflective Observation - (RO)
  • Abstract Conceptualization - (AC)
  • Active Experimentation - (AE)
david kolb s learning styles model3
David Kolb's learning styles model
  • Diverging (concrete, reflective) - Emphasizes the innovative and imaginative approach to doing things. Views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action. Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented. Likes such activities as cooperative groups and brainstorming.
  • Assimilating (abstract, reflective) - Pulls a number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Likes to reason inductively and create models and theories. Likes to design projects and experiments.
david kolb s learning styles model4
David Kolb's learning styles model
  • Converging (abstract, active)- Emphasizes the practical application of ideas and solving problems. Likes decision-making, problem-solving, and the practicable application of ideas. Prefers technical problems over interpersonal issues.
  • Accommodating (concrete, active) - Uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection. Good at adapting to changing circumstances; solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery learning. Also tends to be at ease with people.
honey mumford s learning styles
  • ACTIVIST: a dynamic learners without bias
  • REFLECTOR: an imaginative learner and the person, who observes phenomena, thinks about them and then choose how to act.
  • THEORIST: Who adapt and apply their observations in the form of logical theories.
  • PRAGMATIST: a commonsense learner who only likes to study if they can see a direct link to practical problems.
bloom s taxonomy of learning domains bloom 1956
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains (Bloom (1956),
  • It identifies three “domains” of learning: Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)

Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)

Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

comparative domains
Comparative Domains

Note the new top category, which is being able to create new knowledge within the domain and move from nouns to active verbs

elements of cognitive domain
  • Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?..... defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
  • Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?..... comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.
elements of cognitive domain1
  • Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?.... applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
  • Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? …. analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
elements of cognitive domain2
Elements of Cognitive Domain
  • Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? …. categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.
  • Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? …. assembles, constructs, creates, designs, develops, formulates, writes
effective teaching strategies
Effective Teaching Strategies
  • If student learning is the goal, effective teaching means creating effective learning environments, and environments where students are actively participating and engaged with the material are crucial to student learning.
  • Creating interactive learning atmosphere in the classroom. How can we do it?

Teaching techniques, tools and formats

    • Lecture (making it more interactive)
    • Concept sketches
    • PowerPoint
effective teaching strategies1
Effective Teaching Strategies
  • Audio and Video clips to enhance concepts and theories discussed in the class
  • Guest speaker
  • Case studies
  • Group discussion
  • Group (team) projects
  • Debate
  • Role playing
  • Just-in-Time Teaching
effective teaching strategies2
Effective Teaching Strategies
  • Appropriate assessment and feedback mechanism
  • Concern and respect for students and student learning
  • Effective classroom management and organization
  • Positive expectations
  • Effective design of lessons and activities
  • Rapport with students
  • Enthusiasm
effective strategies and laws of learning
Effective Strategies and Laws of Learning
  • Laws of Learning (attempts to define the   fundamental   conditions   of   the learning  process)  
    • Law of Readiness

According to the law of readiness students learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn.

    • Law of Effect An  individual  learns  best  those  things  which  result  in  satisfying  consequences. The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It has a direct relationship to motivation.
    • Primacy

The state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression. Things learned first create a strong impression in the mind that is difficult to erase.

effective strategies and laws of learning1
Effective Strategies and Laws of Learning
  • Exercise

The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated are best remembered.

  • Intensity

The more intense the material taught, the more likely it will be retained. A sharp, clear, vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience

individual barriers to learning
  • Lack of information
  • Time
  • Money
  • Apathy and lack of motivation
  • Culture
  • Ageism
  • Special needs
  • Socio-economic status
  • Lack of confidence
effective teaching strategies3
Effective Teaching Strategies

Problems in Bangladesh context:

  • Language (English)
  • Capacity
  • Tendency to memorize