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Module 2- Early Release K-2 Reading. Vance County Schools. 10/19/2011. Agenda/Topics to Be Covered. 6 Shifts of ELA Reading Informational Texts.
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Module 2- Early ReleaseK-2 Reading Vance County Schools 10/19/2011
Agenda/Topics to Be Covered • 6 Shifts of ELA • Reading Informational Texts
Six Shifts in Literacy as NC Moves to Common CoreLiteracy Standards in Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects in addition to Language Arts Shift 3 Staircase of Complexity Each grade level requires a “step” of growth on the “staircase”. Shift 1 PK-5 Balancing Informational & Literary Texts Students read a true balance of informational and literary texts. Shift 2 6-12 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Content area teachers emphasize literacy experiences in their planning and instruction. Shift 4 Text-Based Answers Classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page and that students develop habits for making arguments referring to the text. Shift 5 Writing from Sources Writing emphasizes use of evidence to inform or make an argument Shift 6 Academic Vocabulary Addressed in Module 1 Students constantly build the vocabulary they need to access grade level complex texts.
Shifts 1 and 2 Learning to read informational text and learning by reading informational text
Spend a few minutes thinking about the following question and discuss it with a partner. How much of your time do your spend teaching informational reading in your class now?
With your group, brainstorm a list of things students read in your classroom.
What is text structure? • Text structure refers to the internal organization of a text • As authors write a text to communicate an idea, they will use a structure that goes along with the idea (Meyer 1985)
What is text structure? • Suppose an author wanted to show how hawks and owls compare • The author would help the reader to understand the similarities and differences by using words and phrases such as similarity, difference, on the other hand, also, and as well • The author would be using the text structure of compare and contrast
What are the common text structures? Sequence/ Chronological order • Transition words such as first, next, later, and finally are included to help the reader understand how events relate to one another • Dates and times may also be used
What are the common text structures? Sequence/ Chronological order • This is one of the easiest text structures for students to understand, since it matches the way that they experience the world
Pictures Books to Show Sequence Zecca, Katherine. (2007). A Puffin’s Year. Maine: Down East Books. Readers find out about a puffin’s year in this beautifully illustrated book. McMillan, Bruce. (1993). Nights of the Pufflings. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. This book tells the story of pufflings and the Icelandic children who help them when they get lost on their way to the sea. Photographs of children, puffins, and Iceland accompany the text. A nice counterpart to A Puffin’s Year, this book examines some of the same events in a different way. Cherry, Lynne. (1997). Flute’s Journey. New York: Harcourt. In this book, a wood thrush is followed from hatching to raising its own young.
What are the common text structures? Cause and effect • This text structure shows how one or more causes led to one or more effects • This text structure also has a strong time component, since causes come before effects
What are the common text structures? Cause and effect • Transition words such as cause, effect, as a result, consequently, and because are used • Time order transitions are also used, which can lead to some confusion for students
What are the common text structures? Problem and solution • This text structure presents a problem, and shows how it can be (or has been) solved • This text structure can be confused with cause and effect
What are the common text structures? Problem and solution • The key difference is that problem and solution always has a solution, while cause and effect does not • Transitions may include problem, solution, solve, effect, hopeful, and so forth
Picture Books Showing Problem-Solution Text Structure Stewart, Melissa. (2006). A Place for Butterflies. Atlanta, GA: Peachtree Publishing. This book uses two levels of text to explain how butterflies are affected by habitat change, and how people have helped to restore their habitats. The simpler text uses a cause and effect structure, explaining how people’s actions have led to butterfly survival. The longer text focuses on a particular species of butterfly and how people solved problems related to the butterfly’s habitat. Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw. (2008). When the Wolves Returned. New York: Walker and Company. The wolves of Yellowstone were all killed in the early part of the 1900s. How did this lead to problems in the ecosystem? The author of this book explains how and why the wolves were killed, and then tells how scientists reintroduced wolves to the park. This is a good example of how cause and effect text fits well with problem and solution text.
What are the common text structures? Compare and contrast • Transition words may include like, similar, unlike, on the other hand, also, and too • Compare and contrast paragraphs are often embedded in other text structures as an author needs to explain a similarity or difference
What are the common text structures? Compare and contrast • This text structure shows how two or more ideas or items are similar or different • This text structure is also fairly easy for students to understand • The text may use a clustered approach, with details about one topic followed by details about the other • The text may also show an alternating approach, with the author going back between the two topics
Picture Books to Teach Compare-Contrast Collard, Sneed. (2008). Teeth. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge. This book uses a clustered method to describe how different animals use their teeth. Different kinds of teeth are discussed, with details that show how these different teeth help the animals to survive. Most of the comparisons are implicit; however, this would work well with a comparison chart. Bullard, Lisa. (2010). What’s the Difference Between An Alligator and A Crocodile? Minnesota: Picture Window Books. This book uses an alternated style to help a reader understand the differences between an alligator and a crocodile. Diagrams and supportive illustrations depict the main details to show how these reptiles are similar and different. Look for other books in the series, like What’s the Difference Between a Frog and a Toad?
What are the common text structures? Description • This text structure shows what an item or place is like • Transitions in this structure might include spatial words, such as next to, on top of, beside, and so forth
Picture Books to Teach Description Sill, Cathryn. (2010). About Raptors. Atlanta, GA: Peachtree Publishing. This book is part of a series that introduces readers to animals and their characteristics. The books are written with main ideas and supporting details. Very simple text, clear structure. Multiple books in the series could be used for further instruction. Wallace, Karen. (1993). Think of a Beaver. Boston, MA: Candlewick Press. In this book, readers learn about the characteristics of the beaver. Figurative language adds to the descriptive imagery, making it a fine example of a picture book that shows the description text structure. If this title is unavailable, look for the companion book Think of an Eel.Note: Toward the end of the book, the structure changes to chronological order as the growth of beaver kits is explained.
With your group, discuss types of graphic organizers and activities you could use to teach different text structures. • Chronological • Comparison • Cause/effect • Problem/solution • Description
Authors also use text features to bring attention to important details. Students can use the following features to become more successful and efficient in their reading. Text Features Literature Information • Title • Chapter Index (for chapter books and novels) • Illustrations • Bold Print • Continuous Text • Paragraphing • Dialogue • Title • Table of Contents • Index • Photos • Captions • Diagrams • Glossary • Date line (periodicals) • Bold Print • Headings • Sub-titles
How does text structure help readers? • When readers do not have a strong knowledge of the topic of a text, they depend more on the structure. • Research shows that efficient readers use the structure of the text to help them find specific information • It is also an important component to summarizing • When readers summarize, they need to reflect the text structure in the summary
Suggestions for teaching text structure • Be certain that students understand the word “structure” • Without knowing this word, the metaphor of “text structure” will be meaningless
Suggestions for teaching text structure • Examples from students’ lives can be very effective. • Comparing and contrasting two rooms in the school can be easy for students to understand. • The picture book Word Builder by Ann Whitford Paul is a great resource to reinforce the concept that authors “build” with words.
Discuss with your group some examples in your school, class or content that you can use to model the ideas ofchronology,comparison,cause and effect,problem and solution, anddescription.
Suggestions for teaching text structure • Have students create a foldable flip book with all of the text structures listed • Each day, refer back to the books and add new information about new text structures
Suggestions for teaching text structure • To lend some continuity to your instruction, you may want to use texts that are centered on a given topic • It’s interesting to see how the same topic can be discussed in different text structures
With your group review the chart, Text Structure: Signal Questions & Signal Words.Add ideas for books, readings and topics that you can use to teach the different text structures.
State of the SystemThe Vance County Reading Plan states “K-8 students will have a daily minimum of 10-15 minutes to read independently on their appropriate reading level.”To be effective, teachers should access the state of the class at least once a week. Teachers should talk with each student individually.Simple tally sheets can help teachers track discussions to assure all students are addressed weekly.
Sample questions may include:Literary / Fiction1. Do you like the character in the book? Why or why not? 2. What sort of person is (character)? (Explain why you think this.)3. What do you think will happen next?4. Would you have behaved like (character) did in the book? Why? 5. Would you like to read another book by this author? Why? Informational / Nonfiction 1. Why did you choose a book on (topic)? 2. Name two things you have learned about (topic) from this book. 3. Would you like to read another book about (topic)? Why? 4. What other topics would you like to read about? 5. If you could talk to (author) about this book, what would you tell him/her?
Exit Slip 1- One thing you will do differently in your classroom. 2- Two things with which you still have questions or challenges. 3- Three things you have learned.
References • Cataldo, Maria and Jane Oakhill. 2000. “Why Are Poor Comprehenders Inefficient Searchers? An Investigation into the Effects of Text Representation and Spatial Memory on the Ability to Locate Information in Text.” Journal of Educational Psychology 92 (4) 791-799. • Meyer, B.J.F. 1985. “Prose Analysis: Purpose, Procedures, and Problems.” In Understanding Expository Text, edited by B.K. Britton, and J.B. Black. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Teaching Informational Text PowerPoint by Emily Kissner