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Research and Documentation Workshop - Agenda • What is Plagiarism? • Penalties for Plagiarism • Tips to Avoid Plagiarizing • Documentation Part 1 – The Citation • Documentation Part 2 – The Bibliography • Style Guides
Types of Plagiarism • Direct cut and paste • Stealing of ideas (paraphrasing) • Accidental
Penalties for Plagiarism At ASE 1 • Grade of zero for the assignment in question. • Depending on your prior work in the term, a zero on some assignments may mean the difference between a pass and fail in the course. • Previous work in all classes open to investigation.
Penalties for Plagiarism At Post-Secondary Institutions • Depending on severity, penalties range from zero in the course to expulsion from the university and notation on your academic record – available to all other institutions
Penalties for Plagiarism Queen’s University English Department’s Policy: “The penalties imposed by the Department of English for plagiarism vary according to the severity of the offence and may extend to a mark of zero for the course. Any finding (as opposed to allegation) of plagiarism goes on the student’s record in the Dean’s Office. In the case of multiple findings the Associate Dean (Studies) may impose further sanctions including a recommendation to Senate that the student be required to withdraw from the University” (Queen’s University, 2007, p. 3).
Tips to Avoid Accidental Plagiarism • Learn about documentation, and how your school and professor/teacher addresses the issue – ask for help! • Save your work in stages, a new file for each draft – this will help provide evidence if you are accused of plagiarism
Tips to Avoid Accidental Plagiarism • Don’t just copy directly during research, process the information and write it down into your notes in your own words • If you do cut and paste electronically, change the font colour to distinguish it from your own words
Tips to Avoid Accidental Plagiarism • Keep a portfolio of your research – an organized folder of every source, your notes, a working annotated bibliography (“Straight talk about plagiarism,” n.d., p. 2).
Documentation How can we use the work of others in our essays, research papers and presentations without plagiarizing?
Why we document • To use the ideas and work of others without stealing and claiming it as our own • To give credit where credit is due
What is documentation? Two Components – MUST HAVE BOTH! • Citations • Right in the text of your paper • One citation for every fact or idea that is not yours • Bibliography/Works Cited List • Separate page at the end • A list of all of the sources you used • Alphabetical by last name
Documentation Part 1:Footnotes, Endnotes and Parenthetical Citations COMPONENT #1 is THE CITATION • Where you got the fact/idea • Always has minimum: • the author’s name • the page number • year of publication • Immediately after the information, right in the text of your paper.
Documentation Part 1:Footnotes, Endnotes and Parenthetical Citations There are 3 common systems of citation • Chicago style • American Psychological Association (APA) Style • Modern Language Association (MLA) style Each teacher has their own preference – follow their guidelines
Documentation Part I:What does a Chicago Style citation look like? Chicago Style Books: 1. First Name Last Name, Book Title (City of publication: Name of Publisher, Date of publication), pg #. Chicago Style Journal Article: 2. First Name Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume #, issue # (Date of Publication): pg #. Chicago Style Website: 3. First Name Last Name, “Title of Website,” date of publication, <URL Address> (Date of access). ***Note that simply providing the URL address is not sufficient. If your source doesn’t have an author or title – perhaps you should reconsider using that particular source.
Documentation Part I:Short Forms for Repeated Citations When to use ‘Ibid’ • Consecutive citations from the same source and same page number. • Example: 3Engel, Joseph, An Awesome Book by Joe (Toronto: Scarborough Publishing, 2012), 13. 4 Ibid.
Documentation Part I:Short Forms for Repeated Citations • Two consecutive citations from the same source, but different page numbers: 3Engel, Joseph, An Awesome Book by Joe (Toronto: Scarborough Publishing, 2012), 13. 4 Ibid., 35.
Documentation Part I:Short Forms for Repeated Citations • Citing a source that you have already cited earlier in your essay, but not consecutively. • Example: 3Engel, Joseph, An Awesome Book by Joe (Toronto: Scarborough Publishing, 2012), 13. 4Wallace, Shirley, A History of Niagara Falls (Hamilton: McGraw Hill, 2011), 363. 5Engel, An Awesome Book by Joe, 15.
Chicago Style Example (footnotes) • Note: • First line only indented
Documentation Part 1:What does an APA Citation Look Like? Option 1: All info in brackets Essentially,“Researchers usually find it easy to determine the year of publication by consulting the bibliography" (Engel, 2012, p. 201), but many students are not aware of this option.
Documentation Part 1:What does an APA Citation Look Like? Option 2 – Using a ‘signal phrase’. According to Engel (2012),“Researchers usually find it easy to determine the year of publication by consulting the bibliography" (p. 201), but many students are not aware of this option.
Documentation Part I:Footnotes, Endnotes and Parenthetical Citations MLA Style • Similarly to APA style, the information is provided directly within the body of the paper in brackets • The details and formatting are different
Documentation Part I:When do I need a citation?? • Direct quotes • Paraphrased ideas • Numbers, stats, etc. • Anything that you did not already know • When in doubt, play it safe – use a citation You need a new citation for each new idea, fact or quote – even if you have multiple facts in a row all from the same source. You cannot put one citation for all of them at the end.
Documentation Part I:When do I need a citation?? A second example of this socialist approach can be seen in Great Britain’s social welfare policy. The Labour government’s promise of providing “every family with its own separate commodious dwelling,” in 1945 was an honourable goal. As mentioned previously, approximately one third of homes were either destroyed or damaged during the war. The link between the housing program and England’s slow industrial recovery is obvious. Although housing was important, paying to house the nation diverted funds that could have been invested in the rebuilding of industry. Consequently, many workers were housed, but unemployed and unable to provide for their families.
Documentation Part II – Bibliography/Works Cited List • Separate page at the end of your document • Lists of sources alphabetically by last name • Title of page depends on format used • Chicago = Bibliography or References • APA = References • MLA = Works Cited
Documentation Part II – What does a Chicago Style Bibliographic Entry Look Like? Chicago Style Books: Last Name, First Name. Book Title. City of publication: Name of Publisher, Year of publication. Chicago Style Journal Article: Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #, issue # (Date of Publication): pg # range. Chicago Style Website: Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.
Bibliography – Chicago • Note: • Single spaced with doubles space between entries • 2nd and 3rd line indented, first is not
Documentation Part II – What does an APA Style Bibliographic Entry Look Like? APA Style Books: Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication). Book title. City of publication: Name of Publisher. APA Style Journal Article: Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication). Article Title. Title of Journal, volume #(issue #), page #s. APA Style Website: Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication). Title of document/website. Retrieved from http://Web address
Works Cited - APA • Note: • Double spaced • Only first word of titles are upper case • Initials instead of first names
Style Formats Every documentation style has very a specific format. Use these websites to guide you through the process. The links are available from the ASE 1 Info page on the Moodle Website For APA style: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Style Formats For MLA format: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/ For Chicago style format: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html or https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/
If this is all too overwhelming… Check out BibMe – an interactive online Bibliography tool http://www.bibme.org/ Link available from ASE 1 Info on Moodle