slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers . James Thurber PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers . James Thurber

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 39
caden

It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers . James Thurber - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

158 Views
Download Presentation
It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers . James Thurber
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. III Discussion of Background Reading • to become familiar with some of the basic principles of the Theory of Science. • B. Execution • Read: • (i) Chapters 1 to 11 in Dodig-Crnkovic, and • (ii) Chapter 3, Mouton, pp. 27-28, 39-41. (What is the orientation of pp. 29-38?). • (iii) Evaluating Literature, from [6] It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers. James Thurber 

  2. Theory of Science • What is Science? • The systematic study of the properties of the Physical World. 

  3. Theory of Science • What is Science? • The systematic study of the properties of the Physical World. • By means of repeatable experiments and measurements (Arthur Eddington & Einstein, cold fusion) 

  4. Theory of Science • What is Science? • The systematic study of the properties of the Physical World. • By means of repeatable experiments and measurements (Arthur Eddington & Einstein, cold fusion) • and the development of universal theories capable of describing and predicting; 

  5. Theory of Science • What is Science? • The systematic study of the properties of the Physical World. • By means of repeatable experiments and measurements (Arthur Eddington & Einstein, cold fusion) • and the development of universal theories capable of describing and predicting; • Statements must be precise and meaningful. 

  6. Theory of Science • What is Science? • The systematic study of the properties of the Physical World. • By means of repeatable experiments and measurements (Arthur Eddington & Einstein, cold fusion) • and the development of universal theories capable of describing and predicting; • Statements must be precise and meaningful. • Involves more than the gaining of information; we seek a deeper and useful understanding of the world. Not just simply accumulating facts. 

  7. What is the Scientific Method? A logical scheme used by scientists searching for answers, so that theories can be formulated. Pose the question Formulate an Hypothesis Deduce consequences Test the hypothesis When consistency is obtained, the hypothesis becomes a theory. The provisional character of science. 

  8. Maxwell Einstein THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXISTING THORIES AND OBSERVATIONS Hypothesis Adjusted PREDICTIONS SELECTION AMONG COMPETING THEORIES Hypothesis Redefined Consistency Achieved Hypotetico-deductive cycle EXISTING THEORY CONFIRMED OR NEW THORY PUBLISHED HYPOTHESIS Scientific Community cycle  TESTS AND NEW OBSERVATIONS

  9. The Scientific Method: • logical structure of scientific method • provisional character • scientists have to rely on other scientists • scientific community • open information exchange • the first step in doing new research is to repeat earlier work • logical reasoning • observations and/or experiments • “falsifiable” • provisional. 

  10. Properties of Theories: • Impartiality (objective: see Rule II) • Reproducible. Inherent in all Theories • Falsifiable. • Provisional. 

  11. Properties of Theories: • Impartiality (objective: see Rule II) • Reproducible. Inherent in all Theories • Falsifiable (could disprove). • Provisional. • Formulation of theories: • Intuition. • Analogy. • Paradigm. • Metaphor. • Chance (serendipity). 

  12. Criteria for the evaluation of Theories: • Choosing between theories, evaluate • Theoretical scope • Appropriateness • Heuristic value • Validity • Parsimoniousness 

  13. Criteria for the evaluation of Theories: • Choosing between theories, evaluate • Theoretical scope • Appropriateness • Heuristic value • Validity • Parsimoniousness • Theories must fulfill certain criteria: • Logically consistent • Consistent with accepted facts • Testable • Parsimonious • Consistent with related theories (or cause a revolution!) • Interpretable: explain and predict • Pleasing to the mind • Useful 

  14. What is knowledge? • Concepts or notions (models). • No direct observation. • Knowledge and objectivity. The Second Rule. 

  15. What is knowledge? • Concepts or notions (models). • No direct observation. • Knowledge and objectivity. The Second Rule. • Science and Truth. • Scientific knowledge is consensible – science as consensus; converging 

  16. What is knowledge? • Concepts or notions (models). • No direct observation. • Knowledge and objectivity. The Second Rule. • Science and Truth. • Scientific knowledge is consensible – science as consensus; converging • Debate and disagreement is far more natural: science as controversy; diverging 

  17. Critical thinking and logical argument. • An argument is a statement logically inferred from premises. Neither an opinion nor a belief can qualify as an argument. • Examine the conclusion to identify the point. • Examine the premises or underlying assumptions • Arguments aredeductiveorinductive. • An argument can be valid– built according to the rules of construction. • Validitydoes not guarantee truth. False premises can still give a valid argument. 

  18. Critical thinking and logical argument. • In a deductive argument the conclusion is irrefutable. • An argument can bevalid, but the conclusion wrong – valid but not sound. • A soundargument isvalid and conclusion true. • Acogentargument is valid, sound and convincing. 

  19. Deduction: constructed according to valid rules of inference; conclusion necessarily follows from premises. Empirical Induction: Moves from particular assertions to general conclusions; assumes general domain for phenomena tested in part of domain; Hypotheses based on induction disproved by one counter-instance. Mathematical Induction: empirical induction establishes law; mathematical induction establishes that law holds generally. Causality refers to the way of knowing that one thing causes another. 

  20. Hypothetico-deductive method: • Ask a question and formulate hypothesis. • Make predictions about hypothesis. • Test hypothesis. • Induction and deduction are two inseperable parts. 

  21. The Second Rule: All decisions are subjective An argument is a statement logically inferred from premises. Neither an opinion nor a belief can qualify as an argument 

  22. Mouton Chapter 3 • First two sections of Mouton deals with getting a • research idea; identifying a supervisor and discussing • the research topic with the supervisor. • The last section gives further hints, and it is assumed • that the student has made use of this in discussions with • possible supervisors. • The sections in between deal with obtaining • information that is more relevant to the social sciences • and arts than to the natural and applied sciences and • engineering. In the latter case, the international • relevance is of great importance. 

  23. IV Controversy and Science The issue of global warming has remained a topic of virulent discussion. Six years ago, it was predicted that the Arctic ice cap would have disappeared by 2013; the latest news is that the ice cap has increased by 29% since 2013. The public is generally are unaware that Justice Michael Burton in the British High Court had ruled that ex-Vice President of the USA, Al Gore, had made eleven errors so serious that the video “An Inconvenient Truth” could only be shown to school children under certain conditions, accompanied with a warning. One of the witnesses in the case had been R.M. Carter 

  24. IV Controversy and Science • Perform a literature survey on the issue of global warming, with specific reference as to whether the causes are anthropogenic or not. • The scientific community, politicians and the public are strongly divided on the topic. Identify opposing opinions or theories in the literature of the topic. • Categorize the information that you have gathered and discuss. • Evaluate the theories with respect to the principles of the scientific method • Report. Prepare a report consisting of two separate and distinct parts. • Summarise the material of (i) to (iv) above in the form of a research paper or report. • Identify the leading scholars on the subject and discuss as an appendix. Motivate. 

  25. Literature Survey • (i) Perform a literature survey on the issue of global warming, with specific reference as to whether the causes are anthropogenic or not. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it. Samuel Johnson (1709 - 1784) 

  26. DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY SERVICES HOURS Mon. - Thurs: 7:30 - 21:00 Friday: 7:30 - 20:00 Saturday: 8:30 – 13:00 MERENSKYLIBRARY EBIT ‘Information is the key to knowledge’ Library provides access to relevant information EBIT Information Specialist Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering Sunette Steynberg 012 420-4790 sunette.steynberg@up.ac.za 10 February – 13 May 2011 Contact:Rianie van der LindeRianie.VanDerLinde@up.ac.za012 420-4790 • Department of Library Services • (UP Library) • http://www.library.up.ac.za/ebit/index.htm • All Services accessible from web page • Library catalogue • Electronic Journals • Electronic books • Databases • Patents and Standards • Training / Tutorials • Links to relevant sites

  27. E-RESOURCES Accessible to registered students of the University of Pretoria only To Access: Submit your student number If you have not chosen a PIN before, do so now, submit and repeat 2X. Recommended full text journal platforms IEEE Xplore Science Direct Recommended database Scopus Recommended E-Book collections McGraw –Hill Engineering books (300) Knovel Library (2 000) Safari Tech Books (4 500) (for Computer Engineers) Circulation desk enquiries zani.swart@up.ac.za Tel. 012 420 2804 • How to do a search • Multiple keywords – use ‘AND’ connector. Example: electric AND vehicle • Synonyms – use ‘OR’ connector. Examples: Energy OR Power, Petrol OR gasoline, UAV OR “unmanned aerial vehicle” • Exact phrase - enclose term within quotation marks. Example: “radio frequency” • Reference to full text article • http://www.library.up.ac.za/ • Find E-Journal from alphabetical list of full text journals • Search Catalogue for alphabetical list of hard copy journals • Do an Interlibrary loans request if not available in either of the above

  28. Interlending procedure • My Library Space >> Interlending requests • Request item via SACat database • Submit student/personnel number and library PIN to access electronic resources • Click on the drop down menu at Select a Database to Search • Choose SACat • Search for: (Type in Journal title or Author or title of book and select appropriate search indicator in the drop down menu) • Decide which item you want to request and click on the blue text. • Scroll down to the bottom of the record to check for availability. • Click on to transfer the selected record to the interlending request form. • Type in your own interlending userID and Password as received from the interlending personnel, eg: User ID: 2848-99999999, Password: 2848+9999 • Scroll down to Requesting information. • Complete need by (yyymmdd): 1 month from requested date recommended. • If an article is requested, change the following: ILL Service type from LOAN to COPY-NON-RETURNABLE • Bibliographic information: Complete author, title, date, vol, no, pages, etc. of the article. • Use the PATRON NOTE to communicate with interlending staff, eg a book is missing, request urgent • Submit request. • Sabinet & Interlending Services • Register for this service online at • http://www.library.up.ac.za/ebit/interlending.htm • Ms Francina Laka • Telephone number 012 420-4794 • francina.laka@up.ac.za • If a document is not available in SA, you are allowed to request it from overseas. Please contact Ms Modiba by e-mail. • Provide: • - Your Name and tel. no. • - E-mail address • - Your department • - Full particulars of the document you need • International requests • Ms Josephine Modiba • Telelphone number 012 420-4794 • josephine.modiba@up.ac.za

  29. Appendix A Literature Search <global warming> 

  30. Appendix B Literature Search <global warming> Delivering full text access to the world's highest quality technical literature in engineering and technology Browse 

  31. Appendix C Literature Search <global warming> • the largest abstract and citation database of research literature and quality web sources • Scopus offers: • Over 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers • Over 12,850 academic journals including coverage of 535 Open Access journals • 750 conference proceedings • 600 trade publications • 28 million abstracts • 245 million references, added to all abstracts • Results from 200 million scientific web pages • 12.7 million patent records from 4 patent offices • Seamless links to full-text articles and other library resources 