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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (G51IAI). Dr Rong Qu rong.qu@nottingham.ac.uk Module Introduction. An Overview of This Hour. What is AI? Module introduction Aims of the module Course context Textbooks + useful readings Lecture resources Assessments Info of previous exams.

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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (G51IAI)


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    1. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (G51IAI) Dr Rong Qu rong.qu@nottingham.ac.uk Module Introduction

    2. An Overview of This Hour • What is AI? • Module introduction • Aims of the module • Course context • Textbooks + useful readings • Lecture resources • Assessments • Info of previous exams G51IAI - Module Introduction

    3. What is AI? • AI definition • Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.While there are many different definitions, AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents“, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. Wikipedia, 2012 G51IAI - Module Introduction

    4. What is AI? • AI definition • is the study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better. Elaine Rich, 1991 • is a branch of computer science and engineering that deals with intelligent behaviour, learning, and adaptation in machines. Wikipedia, 2009 G51IAI - Module Introduction

    5. What is AI? • Can machines ever be intelligent? • A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) • Director: Steven Spielberg • Philosophy film • Another movie “on” AI? G51IAI - Module Introduction

    6. Wolfgang von Kempelen “The Turk” 18th Century Chess Automaton 1770-1854 G51IAI - Module Introduction

    7. G51IAI - Module Introduction

    8. What is AI? • IBM Deep Blue • Chess champion Garry Kasparov • 11 May 1997 • COG • MIT’s AI lab • Chatterbots • ALICE, PARRY G51IAI - Module Introduction

    9. What is AI? • What is intelligence? • Understanding languages • Automated reasoning • Usually require knowledge • Understanding • Chinese room experiment G51IAI - Module Introduction

    10. What is AI? • Argument: Computers can’t be intelligent • To many people, computers are highly proactive, as they associate with intelligence • Self-awareness: being conscious of one’s own existence • Intentionality: having the intention of doing something, to achieve some goals G51IAI - Module Introduction

    11. What is AI? • Argument: Computers can’t be intelligent • Computers can play strong games, and a chimpanzee can play poor games? • There are non-intelligent ways to achieve intelligent tasks G51IAI - Module Introduction

    12. What is AI? • Machine intelligence: what computers can do • Where a computer is used to accomplish tasks which, were it to be done by human, would require intelligence G51IAI - Module Introduction

    13. Course Context G51IAI-Introduction to AI G52PAS-Planning and Search G52APT-AI Programming Techniques G53DSM-Decision Support Systems G53ADS-Automated Scheduling G53CLP-Constraint Logic Programming G53DIA-Design Intelligent Agents G53KRR-Knowledge Representation and Reasoning G53ARB-Advanced Robotics G53IDS-Individual Project G51IAI - Module Introduction

    14. Module Introduction • Module convenor • http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~rxq/g51iai.htm • G51IAI Web Pages • All lecture slides and additional notes • Assessments • Textbooks • Course schedule (might be updated) • Other resources • Previous exam paper/example questions G51IAI - Module Introduction

    15. Module Introduction • Lectures • Handouts/notes, summary of each lecture • Willingness to answer questions, i.e. mailing list • Course content not too much / too little • Teaching method • Lectures: approx. 20 hours • Private study: approx. 20 hours G51IAI - Module Introduction

    16. Module Introduction • Assessment • 100% examination • 2 hours • 4 out of 6 questions • Each question 25%, needs roughly 30 minutes G51IAI - Module Introduction

    17. Module Introduction • Lecture time - location • Tuesday 11am-1pm – EXCH LT2 • Lecture schedule might be slightly adjusted (if so enough notice will be given) G51IAI - Module Introduction

    18. Module Introduction • Aims of the module • Define what we mean by AI • Allow the students to become familiar with AI software • Provide an understanding of the basic theory of a range of AI techniques G51IAI - Module Introduction

    19. Module Introduction • Aims of the module • Introduce insights of AI history, i.e. key milestones • Provide necessary knowledge to implement some AI techniques (new this year: one lab session) • Introduce game playing techniques • Introduce a number of AI applications G51IAI - Module Introduction

    20. Textbooks • Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach (AIMA) (Russell/Norvig), 1995 & 2003 “Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a big field and this is a big book” (Preface to AIMA) Most comprehensive textbook in AI Much of the material for this course is from this book, available from library. G51IAI - Module Introduction

    21. Textbooks • Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach (AIMA) (Russell/Norvig), 1995 & 2003 Web site: http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ Textbook in many courses Better to be used as reference book You don’t have to learn and read the whole book G51IAI - Module Introduction

    22. Textbooks • Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach (AIMA) (Russell/Norvig), 1995 & 2003 Chap 1 : Introduction Chap 3 : Solving Problems by Search Chap 4.1 : Informed (Heuristic) Search Sections 5.1 & 5.2 : Backtracking Search Chap 6 : Adversarial Search Section 20.5 : Neural Networks Chap 26 : Philosophical Foundation Etc … G51IAI - Module Introduction

    23. Textbooks • Artificial intelligence: a guide to intelligent systems. Addison-Wesley, 2002. Negnevitsky • Good AI textbook, mainly concernsintelligent systems • Easy to read while in depth • Available from the library G51IAI - Module Introduction

    24. Useful Readings • The Essence of Artificial Intelligence (Cawsey), 1998 • Light and easy reading • Highlights of AI topics • AIMA is generally more detailed • In the library G51IAI - Module Introduction

    25. Useful Readings • Artificial Intelligence: Structure and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, 2002 (Luger/Stubblefield) • Web site: http://www.cs.unm.edu/~luger/ai-final/ • Basic introduction • Applications & examples • In the library G51IAI - Module Introduction

    26. Useful Readings • The Essence of Neural Networks (Callan) • Neural Network (Davalo) • In the library G51IAI - Module Introduction

    27. Lecture Schedule • Lecture 1 : Introduction & History of AI (today) • Lectures 2-3 : Neural Networks • Lecture 4 : Data Mining • Lecture 5 : Problem Space & Search • Lecture 6 : Blind Searches • Lecture 7 : Heuristic Search • Lecture 8 : Game Playing • Lecture 9 : Theorem Proving • Lecture 10 : Knowledge Representation G51IAI - Module Introduction

    28. Lecture Content • History & Philosophy • What is AI • Turing Test & Chinese Room experiment • Neural Networks • Perceptrons, Limitations • Application of NN software • Game playing • History • Game Tree Search: mini-max and alpha-beta G51IAI - Module Introduction

    29. Lecture Schedule • Search techniques • State Space Search • Tree Search: Breadth- and Depth-First Search • Informed Search: A* Search • New from 2010/2011 • Theorem proving • Knowledge representation G51IAI - Module Introduction