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Bank of Zambia. THE EMERGENCE OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ITS IMPACT TO SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ZAMBIA BY CALEB M. FUNDANGA Governor BANK OF ZAMBIA Paper Presented at the ZCTU Top Leadership Workshop 3 rd March, 2009 . 1. 1.0 INTRODUCTION.

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Bank of Zambia

THE EMERGENCE OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ITS IMPACT TO SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ZAMBIA

BY

CALEB M. FUNDANGA

Governor

BANK OF ZAMBIA

Paper Presented at the ZCTU Top Leadership Workshop

3rd March, 2009

1

1 0 introduction
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Bank of Zambia

  • This paper discusses the origins of the global financial and economic crisis
  • USA crisis and the rest of the global economy.
  • The social and economic impact on Zambia
  • Prospects for the Zambia in 2009 and beyond
  • Role of the trade union movement and its leadership
  • Conclusion
2 0 o rigins of the global financial crisis
2.0 Origins of the Global Financial Crisis

Bank of Zambia

  • Causes of the Sub-Prime Crisis:
    • Poor underwriting standards for mortgage loans;
    • Weak regulation and supervision of banks; and
    • Exposure to the sub-prime security backed financial assets.
  • Signs of Problem:
    • Inability to service debt when interest rates rose.
    • High loan defaults, foreclosures, and decline in demand for homes.
3 0 usa crisis and the rest of the global economy
3.0 USA Crisis and the Rest of the Global Economy.

Bank of Zambia

  • Implications on World Economies:
    • Banking system short of liquidity (Credit Crunch);
    • Business scale down or closure of operations ; and
    • Slow down in economic growth.
3 0 usa crisis and the rest of the global economy cont d
3.0 USA Crisis and the Rest of the Global Economy (cont’d)

Bank of Zambia

  • US Response to the crisis:
    • Stimulus measures including:
      • Fiscal, interest rate and exchange rate adjustments;
      • Initially US $700 billion to unblock credit for the financial system
      • Further US $787 billion to boost economy under the new US President, Obama.
3 0 usa crisis and the rest of the global economy cont d1
3.0 USA Crisis and the Rest of the Global Economy (cont’d)

Bank of Zambia

  • UK response to the crisis:
      • Temporary tax cuts (reduction in VAT, 17.5% to 15.0%).
  • Euro response to the crisis:
      • China response to the crisis:
    • Stimulus package of US $586 billion to boost demand; and
    • “Moderately easy” monetary policy.
4 0 social and economic impact
4.0 Social and Economic Impact

Bank of Zambia

Growth

  • Effect on the Zambian Economy:
    • Withdrawals by foreign portfolio investors;
    • Weakening Kwacha exchange rate;
    • Lower commodity prices;
    • Reduced economic activity;
    • Increased unemployment; and
    • Low GDP.
4 0 social and economic impact cont d
4.0 Social and Economic Impact (cont’d)

Bank of Zambia

  • Prolonged recession may:
    • Deepen risk aversion and discourage both portfolio and FDI flows;
    • Reduce Zambia’s export earnings;
    • Increase inflation;
    • Rise in interest rates; and
    • Reduced GDP growth.
4 0 social and economic impact cont d2
4.0 Social and Economic Impact (cont’d)

BankofZambia

Revenue Earnings from Mineral Resources

  • Copper prices fell, hence reduced earnings;
  • Reduced tax revenue;
  • Reduced Government capacity to develop infrastructure; and
  • Constrain economic growth.
4 0 social and economic impact cont d4
4.0 Social and Economic Impact (cont’d)

BankofZambia

  • Exchange Rate Volatility
  • High volatility and weakening of Kwacha due to:
      • Political uncertainty;
      • Global financial crisis; and
      • Fall in copper prices.
  • Kwacha depreciated against most major foreign currencies.
  • BoZ continues to participate in foreign exchange market.
4 0 social and economic impact cont d6
4.0 Social and Economic Impact (cont’d)

Bank of Zambia

  • Foreign Capital Flows
  • FDI fell to US $938.6 million in 2008 from US $1,323.9 million in 2007.
  • Foreign Portfolio Investment showed outflow of US $6.1 million in 2008 from inflow of US $41.8 million in 2007.
5 0 prospects for 2009 and beyond
5.0 Prospects for 2009 and Beyond.
  • Positive growth in real GDP expected but to slowdown.

Mainly :

    • mining output to decline;
    • tourism (especially foreign tourists);
    • Mining-related manufacturing & services (e.g. contracts) to be lower; and
    • Agriculture expected to recover.
5 0 prospects for 2009 and beyond cont d
5.0 Prospects for 2009 and Beyond (cont’d)
  • Given current challenges:
    • 2009 National Budget aims at:
      • encouraging diversification (export base);
      • enhancing competitiveness;
      • increasing local value-addition; and
      • increasing expenditure on infrastructure and social services.
5 0 prospects for 2009 and beyond cont d1
5.0 Prospects for 2009 and Beyond (cont’d)
    • Bank of Zambia will continue to monitor global developments;
    • And take appropriate measures to maintain confidence in the banking system and avoid systemic risk.
  • Maintenance of the macroeconomic stability gains achieved.  
5 0 prospects for 2009 and beyond cont d2
5.0 Prospects for 2009 and Beyond (cont’d)
  • Investment confidence in the Zambian economy continues. For instance:
    • New commercial banks (Access, Ecobank, FNB and International Commercial Bank);
    • Construction of the Chambishi MFEZ;
    • Konkola Deep Mine at advanced stage (sinking the shaft).
    • Zesco power rehabilitation programme.
    • Preparatory work on extension and construction of Kariba North Bank and ItezhiTezhi Hydro power stations.
6 0 role of the trade union
6.0 Role of the Trade Union
  • Maintenance of industrial harmony;
  • Support Government and Investor initiatives;
  • Enhance education of union members; and
  • Encourage labour efficiency and improving productivity and communication amongst members.
  • Changing workers’ attitude for the better.
7 0 conclusion
7.0 Conclusion

Bank of Zambia

  • Challenges from global financial crisis are huge but surmountable;
  • Major economies are taking stimulus and mitigating measures;
  • To benefit, we need to remain committed to strong socio-economic policies.
  • We are all part of the solution.