Social Change How our culture has changed over time
Social Change - Jeannette • In what ways has the society/culture at Jeannette High School changed over the past ten years? • How has it remained the same?
Sources of Social Change • What causes social change? • 1. Values and beliefs • 2. Technology • 3. Population • 4. Diffusion • 5. Physical Environment • 6. Wars and Conquests
Values and Beliefs • Ideology – A system of beliefs or ideas that justifies the social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests held by a group or by society • Ideologies often spread through social movements • A social movement is a long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change. • What are some examples of social movements?
Social Movement 1 • The Prohibition Movement
Social Movement 2 • The Women’s Rights Movement
Social Movement 3 • The Peace Movement
Social Movement 4 • The Gay Rights Movement
Social Movement 5 • The Civil Rights Movement
Social Movement 6 • The Environmental Movement
Technology • Technology – The knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment • Material Inventions: • Computers, Social Media, Twitter • Nonmaterial Inventions: • Political Movements • Religious Movements
Population • Changes in the size of the population will bring changed in culture • New People = New Cultures • What are some common foods that did NOT originate in this country?
Population • How can population affect the economy? • Growing population will stimulate the economy • Declining population will need fewer goods and services • How can the age of the population impact social and cultural changes? • Fewer babies = Less need for schools, rec centers
Diffusion • Diffusion – Borrowing ideas, beliefs, and material objects from other societies • How has technology increased cultural diffusion?
Diffusion • Societies generally adopt material culture and technology more freely than ideas and beliefs • Material Culture: • Tools, Weapons • Ideas and Beliefs: • Government • Religion
Diffusion Works Both Ways • Culture adopted by America: • Pasta from Italy • Sushi from Japan • Golf from Scotland
Diffusion Works Both Ways • American culture adopted by other countries: • American movies • American music • American cars • Soft drinks • Fast food
Physical Environment • The physical environment can encourage or discourage cultural change • Natural disasters (floods, earthquakes) • Natural Resources: • High Fuel Prices • Fuel Shortages • Hybrid Cars
Wars and Conquests • Bring the greatest change in the shortest amount of time • Property destroyed/rebuilt • Advances in technology • Changes in economy • Changes in government • September 11, 2001
Resistance to Change • Resistance #1 – Ethnocentrism • Change that comes from outside a society is often met with strong resistance • People tend to believe that their own ideas and ways of doing things are the best • Extreme ethnocentrism can make cultural change difficult or even impossible • Example: Only buying American products
Resistance to Change • Resistance #2 – Cultural Lag • Cultural lag – Some traits change rapidly, some traits take more time • Material culture changes faster than nonmaterial • Why do we have a summer break? • Children were needed to work on farms • Farming has decreased…summer breaks still exist
Resistance to Change • Resistance #3 – Vested Interests • Resistant to changes that threaten their standard of living • An imperfect present is better than an unknown future