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business education criminology economics psychology sociology nursing







APA Style is used in research writing for several majors. Always check with your professor if you’re not sure which format to use.

title page
Title page
  • Header should read “Running head:” followed by shortened title in capitals, followed by the page number:


  • The running head should be no more than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation)
  • Full title (12 or fewer words) should be centered in the upper half of the page
  • Title is followed by student’s name and university.
title page4


  • Full Title of Paper: Sentence Case, Centered Left to Right
  • Name of Student Author
  • Name of University

No more than 50 characters

Full title is centered in upper half of the page

Title page

When required, an abstract should be placed on the page immediately following the title page.

  • Indicate the thesis and main points of the paper.
  • Touch on the conclusions or implications of the research.
  • Do not indent on the first line.



Community violence is recognized as a significant public health problem. However, only a paucity of research has examined risk factors for community violence exposure across domains relevant to adolescents or using longitudinal data. This study examined youth aggressive behavior in relation to community violence.

  • Brief summary describing purpose and findings of the paper
  • Average length 150- 250 words
  • Written as a single paragraph with no indentations
  • Word “Abstract” centered at the top
  • Includes a header (title and page number)

Source: Lambert, S., et al. (2005). Risk factors for community violence exposure in adolescence. American Journal of Community Psychology. 36(1-2), pp. 29-49.

page formatting
Page Formatting


Begun primarily with the focus on the study of peace and

prevention of war (Harty & Modell, 1991), the field of conflict resolution has since expanded its influence to all spheres

from family, to business and community, to international relations.

The effort, in fact, has been to shift international conflict

resolution from being primarily the domain of the government

and the military to that of social scientists.

The most difficult aspect of intergroup and international

conflicts is their tendency to become protracted. Azar (1990)

suggests that such conflicts occur “when communities are

deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of

their communal identity” (p. 12).


  • Times New Roman
  • 12-point


  • 1 inch


  • double
  • 5-space indent at the beginning of each paragraph


  • Left
  • In your own words
  • Cite with author and year of publication

Critics of the workshops again called into question the applicability of a very intense method of human-relations training (the Tavistock model) to the situations of sensitive and volatile intergroup relations(Fisher, 1997).

short quotes fewer than 40 words
Short quotesfewer than 40 words
  • Appears exactly the way it does in the original text
  • Surrounded by quotation marks
  • Cited with author, year of publication, and page number.
  • If no page number, use paragraph number.

Short quotesfewer than 40 words

Azar(1990) suggests that such conflicts occur when “communities are deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of their communal identity” (para. 12).

Such conflicts occur when “communities are deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of their communal identity” (Azar, 1990, p. 12).

block quotes
Block Quotes
  • Longer than 40 words
  • No quotation marks
  • Starts on a new line
  • Double-spaced
  • Whole quote indented ½”
  • Citation after the period
block quote
Block Quote
  • Contrary to conclusions reported by Dylan (1979) and Forbes (1980), new research demonstrated many things about placebo effects on behaviors. The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Earlier
    • studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (Smith, 1982, p. 234)
  • Such future work must be both methodologically and scientifically sound.
citing multiple authors
Citing multiple authors

Use ‘&’ in parenthetical citations

  • One author
  • Two authors
  • Three to five authors (first citation)
  • Six and more authors

Smith (2002) or (Smith, 2002)

Jones and Smith (2000) or (Jones & Smith, 2000)

(Williams, Jones, Smith, & Torrington, 2003)

(Williams et al., 2003)

citing an indirect source
Citing an indirect source

Name the original source in your signal phrase.

List the secondary source in your reference list

Include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Levine (1998) (as cited in Barr, 2000) feels that students often fail to

maximize their potential.

Reference list: Use secondary source (Barr).

citing using titles when no author is listed
Citing using titleswhen no author is listed
  • Book title
  • Article or chapter title
  • Organization name

(Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2000)

(“Rats and Placebos,” 2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2001)

citation reference
Citation <---> Reference

In-text citations must always match with the reference entries:

  • In-text Citation
  • Reference Entry

“The club-and-bar scene is a new addition to the [student fun] list”(Levine

& Cureton, 1998).

Levine, A., & Cureton, J. (1998). When hope and fear collide: A portrait of

today’s college student. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

  • Alphabetize by author’s last name
  • Double-space
  • Hanging indent for each entry
  • Article title - only capitalize first word
  • Book title - italicize, only capitalize first word
  • Journal title - italicize and capitalize all words



  • Fine, M., & Kurdek, L. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist,48,1141-1147.
  • GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from usersurveys/survey1
  • Nicol, A., & Pexman, P. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Robin Sontheimer University of Missouri-Kansas City Writing Center 2009Resources
  • Sample APA paper

Tutorial about APA style

for more information
For more information

please refer to the APA Manual or

go to or go to