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Developed for Florida Gulf Coast University By Writing Center Staff. American Psychological Association (APA) Formatting Guidelines. Business Education Criminology Economics Psychology Sociology Nursing.
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By Writing Center Staff
Running head: PRIMARY EDUCATION 1
When required, an abstract should be placed on the page immediately following the title page.
RISK FACTORS 2
Community violence is recognized as a significant public health problem. However, only a paucity of research has examined risk factors for community violence exposure across domains relevant to adolescents or using longitudinal data. This study examined youth aggressive behavior in relation to community violence.
Source: Lambert, S., et al. (2005). Risk factors for community violence exposure in adolescence. American Journal of Community Psychology. 36(1-2), pp. 29-49.
INTERACTIVE CONFLICT 5
Begun primarily with the focus on the study of peace and
prevention of war (Harty & Modell, 1991), the field of conflict resolution has since expanded its influence to all spheres
from family, to business and community, to international relations.
The effort, in fact, has been to shift international conflict
resolution from being primarily the domain of the government
and the military to that of social scientists.
The most difficult aspect of intergroup and international
conflicts is their tendency to become protracted. Azar (1990)
suggests that such conflicts occur “when communities are
deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of
their communal identity” (p. 12).
Critics of the workshops again called into question the applicability of a very intense method of human-relations training (the Tavistock model) to the situations of sensitive and volatile intergroup relations(Fisher, 1997).
Azar(1990) suggests that such conflicts occur when “communities are deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of their communal identity” (para. 12).
Such conflicts occur when “communities are deprived of satisfaction of their basic needs on the basis of their communal identity” (Azar, 1990, p. 12).
Use ‘&’ in parenthetical citations
Smith (2002) or (Smith, 2002)
Jones and Smith (2000) or (Jones & Smith, 2000)
(Williams, Jones, Smith, & Torrington, 2003)
(Williams et al., 2003)
Name the original source in your signal phrase.
List the secondary source in your reference list
Include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Levine (1998) (as cited in Barr, 2000) feels that students often fail to
maximize their potential.
Reference list: Use secondary source (Barr).
(Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2000)
(“Rats and Placebos,” 2003)
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2001)
In-text citations must always match with the reference entries:
“The club-and-bar scene is a new addition to the [student fun] list”(Levine
& Cureton, 1998).
Levine, A., & Cureton, J. (1998). When hope and fear collide: A portrait of
today’s college student. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
GUIDE TO WRITING 5
Tutorial about APA style
please refer to the APA Manual or
go to or go to www.apastyle.org