Book Reviews Due Today! They will be collected at the end of classONLY. Please take a seat and quietly listen to the lecture, or wait outside. Do not disturb or be disrespectful to other students in the class.
Unit 7 Quiz Must be completed by midnight Friday.
Unit 8: Ideology and WorldviewLecture 1 Ideology and Practice: The Archaeology of Habitus
Individual Needs: To explain how world works For sense of control in face of crisis To cope with death and fate of human psyche Societal Needs: To create consensus about right and wrong To validate transitions in personal and communal life To legitimize social institutions Humans face common problems that require rationalization:
structures of the mind culturally-constructed; shared and learned in social contextsinfluences how we perceive and act in the material world of our experience • Ideology: broad set of rationalizations for common human problems and experiences. • Religion: ideology that deals with understanding the relationship between humans and the supernatural.
Pierre Bourdieu (1977) A Theory of Practice • Habitus: our internalized, embodied view of how the world works and how things should be done. • Constituted in practice; in how we go about our daily lives; in how we experience the world. • Manifested materially • Continually reproduced or transformed
Archaeological Case Study: James Deetz (1977)In Small Things Forgotten Argument:between 1607 and 1760 English colonists experienced major transformation in how they conceived, ordered and lived in the world. This change left distinct imprint on their material surroundings.
Example: Domestic Architecture “People are conceived, are born, and die in houses…The form of a house can be a strong reflectionof the needs and the mindsof those who built it; in addition, it shapes and directs their behavior.” (Deetz 1977)
Medieval Mindset 17th-early 18th c. Group oriented, corporate, organic, vernacular The Anglo-American Worldview Early 17th. Century “longhouses” from Plymouth Colony in NE Reconstructed “Earthfast” houses at Jamestown, VA
“A Gothic building evolved…It was not planned…it just grew.” (Hugh Morrison) Bacon’s Castle, VA. Built 1665. “Jacobean-style” w/ Flemish gables and more vernacular, organic, cross-shaped plan. Typical English “Hall and Parlor” Plan Fairbanks House, Dedham, MA. Built 1637. Typical Hall and Parlor Plan, showing organic growth through time
Georgian Order Mid 18th c. Focus on individual, formal, orderly, more academic, popular The Anglo-American Worldview Judith dug here! Shirley Plantation, VA. Built ca. 1738 Typical Georgian house plan w/ central hall and more specialized use of space.
Georgian architecture is orderly, planned, and based on popular, academic principles of design 3 4 5 3 5 3 Classic 3-4-5 proportions of Shirley Plantation mansion and flanking dependencies. 5 5 4 4
The Georgian worldview emphasizes form over function Balance and Order
Transformation of Medieval Wordview to Georgian Worldview • Result of economic expansion of mercantile capitalism in Anglo-America • Rise of literate, secular, middle class • Artificial means to impose balance and order on increasingly uncertain social and material world
Building on Deetz’ Model • Mark Leone (1980s) Historic Anapolis, MD • Critiqued Deetz for not taking into account issues of POWER AND AGENCY • Internal contradictions: Rich/Poor; Free/Slave; British/American • Threats to economic and political stability of new American middle class
William Paca’s Garden, Anapolis • Ostentatious displays of Power and Wealth • Symmetry and Order demonstrate control over nature Georgian style formal garden in VA Reconstructed plan of garden of 18th. century land owner, William Paca, in Annapolis, MD
Ordering Nature = Naturalizing Order Discursive acts designed to stabilize and assert individual prosperity and power--not just a material reflection of it. Mark Leone and his colleagues were concerned to show how Paca’s power “was placed in law and nature…in practicing law and gardening.”
How we will collect the Book Reviews…. • The TAs will place signs on the front of the stage w/ the title of each book. • Exit your row to the right, walk down the side aisle to the front, forming a single line. • Place your paper in the proper pile. • Exit up the left-hand aisle.