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The ideas and discoveries about Earth. Hipparchus 190 – 120 BC. Claudius Ptolemy 85 – 165 AD. Nicolas Copernicus 1473 – 1543. Tycho Brahe 1546 – 1601. Johannes Kepler 1571 – 1630. Galileo Galilei 1564 – 1642. Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727. Edmund Halley 1656 – 1742.

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190 – 120 BC

Claudius Ptolemy

85 – 165 AD

Nicolas Copernicus

1473 – 1543

Tycho Brahe

1546 – 1601

Johannes Kepler

1571 – 1630

Galileo Galilei

1564 – 1642

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 – 1727

Edmund Halley

1656 – 1742

Sir William Herschel

1738 – 1822

Caroline Herschel

1750 – 1848

Albert Einstein

1879 – 1955

Edwin Hubble

1889 – 1953

timeline of ideas
Timeline of Ideas


He suggests the idea of epicycles to suggest how planets move. The Earth is still at the centre of the Solar System.

(approx. 150 BC)


Made major advances in telescope design.

(1594 AD)

Johannes Kepler

He suggests three laws of planetary motion and that orbits are ellipses and not circles.

(1600 AD)

Edwin Hubble

Discovered that the universe is expanding.

(1929 AD)

1000 BC

2000 AD



He suggests the idea of the Sun at the centre of the Solar System.

(approx. 200 BC)


He suggests that the Earth is at the centre of the solar system.

(approx. 340 BC)

Nicolas Copernicus

Suggests that the sun is at the centre of the Solar System.

(1543 AD)

Isaac Newton

Suggested the idea of planetary gravity.

(1700 AD)

William Herschel

Discovered Uranus

(1781 AD)

galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei
  • Galileo Galileiwas an Italian scientist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher
  • He improved the telescope and consequent astronomical observations.
  • He was named the ‘father of modern observational astronomy’, ‘father of physics’, ‘father of science’ and ‘father of modern science’.
galileo galilei cont
Galileo Galilei(cont.)
  • Galileo was able to use this telescope to prove the truth of the Copernican system of heliocentrism.
  • He published his observations which went against the teaching of the Church. He was brought to trial and was imprisoned for life. Other scientists seized its importance and could learn more the world.
  • He was the first person to identify Sunspots and to see the 4 brightest moons of Jupiter. He also noticed that our view of Venus changes in the same way as that of our Moon.

In 1512, he recorded a basic sketch of his system in a manuscript called Commentariolus

  • Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer.
  • He came up with the heliocentric system where the Sun was at the center in 1508.
  • Earlier starwatchers had believed the same, but he brought it to the world of and used his own observations to back up his idea.
  • His ideas, including the revelation that the Earth rotates on its axis, were too different for most of the scholars of his time to accept.
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian.
  • He had described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion
  • He built the first practical reflecting telescope
henrietta swan leavitt
Henrietta Swan Leavitt
  • Henrietta Swan Leavittwas an American astronomer.
  • Leavitt discovered the relation between the luminosity and the period of Cepheid variable stars.
  • Her discovery allowed astronomers to measure the distance between the Earth and faraway galaxies.
  • Edwin Hubble used the luminosity-period relation for Cepheids to determine that the Universe is expanding.
subrahmanyan chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
  • SubrahmanyanChandrasekhar,was an Indian-American astrophysicist.
  • He won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for key discoveries that led to the currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars.
  • Chandrasekhar worked in various areas including stellar structure, theory of white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, theory of radiative transfer, quantum theory of the negative ion of Hydrogen, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, equilibrium and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity, mathematical theory of black holes and theory of colliding gravitational waves.
stephen hawking
Stephen Hawking
  • Stephen William Hawking, is a theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author. His significant scientific works are gravitational singularities theorems and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. He thinks that we may be able to leave earth, aliens exist and that time travel is possible.
  • Hawking has achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; his A Brief History of Time stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.
  • He is almost entirely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device.
professor michael robinson and dr brian may
Professor Michael Robinson and DrBrian May
  • They modelled the space dust in the solar system.
  • It explains the infrared radiation from zodiacal dust seen
  • Who was GalilioGalilei?
  • What is Nicolas Copernicus famous for?
  • What did Isaac Newton invent?
  • Edwin Hubble used the theory of which scientist to determine that the Universe is expanding?
  • Who was SubrahmanyanChandrasekhar?
  • What did Stephen Hawking predict?
  • What did Professor Michael Robinson and Dr Brian May do?