Social Development and Human Resources Ida Bastiaens Colin Clarke Bokgyo Jeong (Jonathan)
Summary of this Week • The focus of this week are as follows: • What kinds of alternative approaches we can take as counter-arguments of existing main stream development models (economic growth or dependency models) ? • Does the social development approach combined with human resource development provide a substantially different and meaningful answer to the previous question?
Summary of this Week (Cont.) • As alternative approaches, we can • turn to the social development going beyond the narrow focus of economic growth and political democratization (Martinussen, 1997; Isbister, 1993; Staudt, 1991); • take a look at different dimensions of poverty like basic needs (Martinussen, 1997; Leys, 1996; Goulet and Wilber) or gender (Martinussen, 1997; Staudt, 1991; Edward and Hulme, 1997); • reframe development from the practical management perspective (Edward and Hulme, 1997; Staudt, 1991); • uncover the significant role of the civil society and NGOs (Edward and Hulme, 1992; Bendix, ; Staudt, 1991); • analyze various environmental factors in order to comprehend and make sense of the development contexts of developing countries ( Edward Hulme, 1997; Staudt, 1991)
Take-away Points by each author • Theories and approaches using the state and market are incomplete in development studies. Instead, multiple strategies and perspectives are necessary to truly capture the broad and complex elements of development (Martinussen, 1997). • Understanding poverty and providing social development requires theoretical lenses that emphasize several dimensions of poverty like basic needs, gender, and societal studies (Martinussen, 1997).
Take-away Points by each author (Cont.) • Different development languages provide a multitude of development definitions. For that reason, where development management fit into between state and society has to be one of the main focus in development studies and practices (Staudt, 1991). • Making sense of the environment through embracing all environmental factors is essential in addressing the development management in developing countries (Turner and Hulme, 1997).
Take-away Points by each author • Evolution of administrative elite role to economic development can be understand through the exploration of the process of role definitions, socialization and recruitment (Armstrong, 1973). • Both development and underdevelopment have costs, but the cost of underdevelopment is greater (Goulet and Wilber). • Poverty, or the inability to make choices, occurs at the micro and macro level and is perpetuated by our globalized and urbanized society. (Isbister)
Take-away Points by each author • The formation of civil society is based upon social rights, citizenship, the trappings of bureaucracy and the formation of interest groups. This process occurs at varying levels and to varying extents in different countries, but is nevertheless an essential component of development. (Leys, Bendix, Edwards & Hulme)
Armstrong (1973), The European Administrative Elite. • Main topic of this book • How we understand the European administrative system • The main theories and framework to comprehend the European administrative system: role theory and theories of socialization and recruitment • Exploration of the “process by which role definitions are acquired” (p.3). • Evolution of administrative elite role to economic development, defined as growth in industrial output • What are factors that produced positive definitions of the administrative role in relation to economic development? • Intermediate variable: recruitment/ socialization • Dependent variable: role definition
Armstrong (1973), Continued. • Assumption of this book • Elite as a “set of roles” (p. 14); Elite refers to the “process”, especially education, which affects elite roles in a differential manner. • Socialization as the “link between societal expectations and norms and administrators’ role perceptions.” (p. 15). • Method: Comparative analysis • Cross-national comparison: British, France, Germany, and Russia • Longitudinal comparison: Four periods (Preindustrial, take-off, industrial, and postindustrial)
Armstrong (1973), Continued. • Diffusion of development doctrines Development Non-development Non-interventionist Laissez Faire Calvinism Traditional Christianity Benthamism Listism Keynesianism Rathenauism Saint-Simonism Marxist Economism Mercantilism Cameralism Leninism Interventionist Source: Armstrong (1973:71)
Armstrong (1973), Continued. • The model of recruitment of European administrative elites • Ascription: Upper class as the main source of recruits • Class as a stratification concept and a matter of societal consensus • Prussian: accommodation of aristocratic and administrators’ values; “accommodated men of aristocratic and bourgeois origins by stressing its own distinctiveness” (p.82) • French: dominance of bourgeois values in the French administrative role • Britain: aristocratic values without a strong noble reference group
Nation Building & Citizenship (Bendix) • Ch.3- Transformations of W. European Societies Since 18th c. • Individualistic authority relationships: what is the responsibility of the upper-class to the poor? • Democratization and industrialization are two processes • Whether and to what extent social protest would be accommodated through the extension of citizenship to the lower classes?
Bendix Ch.3 (cont.) • In England, lower-class protests are aimed at establishing citizenship and thus a voice in the society to which they contribute • Functional representation vs. plebiscitarian principle (group versus individual) • Social rights as an element of citizenship (education)
Chapter 4: Administrative Authority in the Nation-State (Bendix) • In the modern nation-state, the link between governmental authority and inherited privilege is severed • Distinguishes between the nature of authority over an administrative staff and the organizational conditioning of the staff which affects its implementation of commands • Focuses on the example of the evolution of bureaucracy in Prussia/Germany- curb arbitrary rule of royal autocrat
Chapter 4: Administrative Authority in the Nation-State (Bendix) (cont.) • Modern Western societies exemplify the duality between government and society • Governmental activities which develop in response to public demands encourage the formation of groups based on the principles of common interest • Increasing access to public employment and to influence upon the administrative implementation of policies are a counterpart to the extension of citizenship
MartinussenCh 20: Dimensions of Alternative Development • Focus on civil society, poverty, inequality, basic needs, human development • Need dialogue between approaches • Alternative Development: • Origins: Mill, Seers • Redefinition of Development Goals • Sen, Seers, Streeten, Haq • Theories of Civil Society • Roots: Hettne (utopian socialism), Hegel, Marx, Polanyi, Hyden • Friedman (social practice and institutionalization) • Advancements • UNEP and UNCTAD • IFDA
Synthesis • Alternative approach to development • Social development • Civil society and NGOs • Poverty alleviation • Gender and development • Basic needs • Development management • Societal development and environmental analysis
MartinussenCh 21: Poverty and Social Development • Since 1960 poverty and inequality more important • Relationship to growth and savings • Shifts in Perception and Strategy • Passive to active, macro to micro • Poverty and Basic Needs • Chenery 1974: target poor in growth strategy • Hunt, Streeten: Basic Needs (necessities, public services, political participation) • Lipton, Maxwell: Poverty Eradication (labor intensive, access to services, safety net)
Martinussen Ch 21 cont’d • Social Welfare and Sustainable Human Development • Haq: 1990 HDR, enlarge choices/opportunities (to life, knowledge, resources) • Unobserved Poverty(Chambers) • Challenge for policy makers to see poor • Spatial, seasonal, diplomatic, professional biases • Gender and Development • Women in Development • Rathgeber • Exclusion, inferiority… want to mainstream, integrate • Gender and Development • Young • Gender relations, public and private spheres, structure, process
IsbisterCh 2: A World of Poverty • Poverty “is the inability to make choices” • Micro and macro level (excluded from power or benefits of society) • Third World: excluded, nonaligned, disenfranchised • Poverty is INSECURITY • Today’s poor “connected to changing world” • Recent poverty not traditional– urban slums • Responsibility to help • How does rich policies and progress affect 3rd world
Goulet and WilberThe Human Dilemma of Development • Cost of Development • Industrialization: change social structure, new values and institutions, need to increase capital may decrease consumption (painful!) • Cost of Underdevelopment • Malthusian trap- death, disease • Economic Development as War on Poverty • Cost of development is less than cost of underdevelopment
Turner and Hulme, 1997, Governance, Administration & DevelopmentCh.2 Organizational Environments • Making sense of the environment • Elements of the environment • Economic factors: Gross national product, Structure of production, Labor, Domestic capital, Foreign exchange, Foreign aid and debt, Infrastructure, Technology, Poverty and inequality, and Informal sector • Cultural factors: Ethnicity, Family and kinship, Values and norms, Gender, and History
Turner and Hulme, 1997, Governance, Administration & DevelopmentCh.2 Organizational Environments (Continued) • Elements of the environment (Continued) • Demographic: Population growth, Age structure, Urbanization and migration, and Health • Political: State-society relations, Legitimacy, Regime type, Ideology, Elites and classes, International links, and Institutions • Public sector and its environment • Distinctiveness, diversity, turbulence, opportunities and constraints, competing perceptions, cause and effect, and foreign models and third world realities.
Staudt, 1991, Managing DevelopmentCh.2 Development: Conception From About People at the Grassroots • Main topic: Locating “development management” between state and society, by investigating development language. • Displaying “power realities” (p.29) • Revealing “people’s voices” (p.30) • Reviewing definitions of development • Discourse and images: • “Language creates a reality all its own (p.11).” • Underdeveloped, developed, and developing • First world, second world, and a third world • Maps on flat surfaces distort a global world • The Mercator projection exaggerates land masses near poles, and shrinks land masses near the equator (p.14) • The “North” 18.9 million square miles, looks larger than the “South” with 38.6 million square miles (p.14)
Staudt, 1991, Managing DevelopmentCh.2 Development: Conception From About People at the Grassroots • Historical and contemporary perspectives • “The overall result of changes in agriculture was that most Mexicans were eating less while some were exporting more (p.25)” => Is this development? • Implication: Where does development management fit? • “In the state”: debates between reformers and structural transformers • “In society”: people’s organizations and their relationships with the state; effectiveness depends on their managerial capability
Reinhard Bendix, Nation Building & Citizenship • Transformation of society and the processes that ultimately lead to nation building and citizenship • - Industrialization in England • - Democratization in France • Lower social classes finding a voice through protest and becoming involved in political life of the state • Group versus Individual- early seeds of civil society
Edwards and Hulme, Making a Difference • The role of NGOs and development in a complex and constantly changing world • Implications of poverty alleviation and the concept of “scaling up” at the NGO level • Concerned with practicality; issues including sustainability, cost-effectiveness, types of benefits and their distribution throughout society
Colin Leys, Rise and Fall of Development Theory • The state & the crisis of simple commodity production • What is the role of the state versus the individual or family farm? • Growing risk of a new form of colonization which includes a chronic dependence on food aid and/or budgetary support from abroad
References • Martinussen, John. Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development. (London: Zed Press, 1997). Chapter 20-21 • IsbisterJohn. Promises not Kept: The Betrayal of Social Change in the Third World. (West Hartford: Kumarian, 1993). Chapter 2 • Goulet, Denis and Wilber, Charles K. “The Human Dilemma of Development.” in Jameson and Wilber, Political Economy of Development. • Staudt, Kathleen. Managing Development: State, Society, and International Contexts. (Newbury Park: SAGE Publication, 1991). Chapter 2 • Turner, Mark and David Hulme. Governance, Administration & Development. (West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1997). Chapter 2
References (cont.) • Leys,Colin, The Rise and Fall of Development Theory (Bloomington, IN.: Indiana University Press, 1996). • Edwards, Michael and David Hulme, Making a Difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World (London: Earthscan, 1992) • Bendix, Reinhard, Nation Building and Citizenship (New Jersey: Transaction, 1996)