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Security, Privacy and Ethics. ITC - 331 Topic 6a: Computers and work; Topic 6b: Professionalism and social media;. Overview. The introduction of computer technology has had a major effect on our lives in general and on our working lives in particular.

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security privacy and ethics
Security, Privacy and Ethics

ITC - 331

Topic 6a: Computers and work;

Topic 6b: Professionalism and social media;

  • The introduction of computer technology has had a major effect on our lives in general and on our working lives in particular.
  • Many people think that computer technology us an unmitigated good, which eventually can solve all our problems.
  • Others do not like it at all believing that the dangers and the problems created outweigh any benefits.
  • Its hard to predict how computers will affect us in the future, the extent will greater then it is now.
  • In 1996 Joseph Weisnbaum one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence argued against the use of computers for military purposes. Especially giving machines the right to kill people.
equity and access
Equity and Access
  • The digital divide was coined by Benjamin Compaine in 2001, where two classes of people are described “information haves and have-nots”
  • The divide is perceived gap between those who have and those who do not have access information tools.
  • Divides exist not only between classes of people nowadays but also states
  • In 2000 it was estimated that 429 million people, around 6% of the worlds population were online, out of those 429 million people 68% live in North America and Europe.
  • According to a Human Development Report (2000) an estimated 2 billion have no electricity.
equity and access1
Equity and Access
  • Why is the digital divide an ethical issue ?
    • If access or no access to cybertechnology effects one’s well bing then a strong case can be made on moral grounds
    • Opponents to the digital divide issue say that this is not different from the “Mercedes Benz divide”
    • If we can show that by not having access to cybertechnologyeithier denies or unfairly limits access to basic goods such as knowledge, ability, freedom it is an injustice.
  • In summary without access to cybertechnology people are disadvantaged
    • Their access to knowledge is siginificantly limited
    • Their ability to participate fully in the political process and receive important information is diminished
    • Their economic prospects are hindered
equity and access2
Equity and Access
  • A moral argument could be extended from the same logic the government provides universal education and healthcare for people, then on those grounds we should have universal internet access
  • Disabled people which have no access to cybertechnology could be severely disadvantaged, more so then healthy people. On the other hand cybertechnology could enable and liberate disabled people to offer their skills to a world wide audience.
employment and work
Employment and work
  • Cybertechnology has transformed the nature of work it self, the following ethical issues exist
    • Job displacement and automation
    • Robotics and expert systems
    • Remote work and virtual organisations
job displacement and automation
Job displacement and automation
  • Studies show that cybertechnology has replaced jobs in factories and other places of automation, yet it has created jobs in computers industries
  • That is referred to as “job displacement”
  • This is not the first time jobs have been displaced, during the industrial revolution many jobs were displaced and replaced by machines.
  • A group of angry workers which was led by Ned Ludd in England started the Luddite movement which went around smashing factories with new automated machines
  • Correct and sensitive use of cybertechnology cab enable us to humanly restructure work so its more meaningful and productive for all involved.
robotics and expert systems
Robotics and expert systems
  • Recent developments in robotics raise social concerns for industrial automation.
  • Robots were once fairly unsophisticated and had very limited sensory capacity
  • New generation robots are able to perform a broader range of tasks and a capable of recognizing a variety of objects using visual and tactile information.
  • These technologies can be used to lower costs through automations by causing job displacement.
  • Other systems are experts systems a computer system via the use of artificial intelligence is able to make human like decisions.
  • Most recently expert systems have been developed for fields such as law, education and finance. ES technology poses a threat to professional workers by allowing knowledge to be taken from experts and implanted into software,
remote work and virtual organisations
Remote work and virtual organisations
  • Telecommunications technology has allowed organisations to have a flexible workforce that is distributed in many locations
  • Virtual teams can be assembled from a variety of professionals around a task
  • Virtual teams/organisations raise a number of social concerns
    • What commitment can employees expect from the employers
    • What will be the social contact between employees without a fixed office
    • Will the worker actually benefit from working at home? White collar workers basically get ahead with their results, however lower classes of workers can benefit from that, their work has to be observed.
  • One great benefit and ethically correct use of virtual technology is allowing disabled people to work from home and contribute to their society.
  • There are some health side effects of prolonged computer use and no set hours. Effects can range from eye fatigue called video operators syndrome (VODS) and carpal tunnel syddrome caused by keyboards and pointing devices.
health and safety issues
Health and Safety Issues
  • Cybertechnology-related health and safety issues have been associated with computer hardware
  • Prolonged use of monitor can cause eyestrain, fatigue, blurring and double vision
  • Keyboards and hand held pointing devices can cause arm, hnad and finger trauma leading to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
  • Employees and Employers have to observe proper ergonomic practices such having adjustable workstations, correct height of keyboards and pointing devices to ensure that they employees neck back and feet are properly aligned when the employee is seated on the computer
  • Check out “Ergonomic Tips for Your Office”
employee stress and computer monitoring
Employee Stress and Computer Monitoring
  • Many workers experience stress because their activities are now monitored closely by an “invisible supervisor”
  • Their computer can record information about work habits
  • Lucas Introna (2001) points out that 45% of major United States firms record and review employee communications and activities on the job including phone callas, email and computer files.
  • Introna believes that surveillance technology which has become less expensive has also become less overtly and more diffused.
  • These technologies are turning work places into electronic sweatshops and they invade peoples privacy.
  • Employers cite arguments that monitoring reduces employee theft, eliminated waste, improves competitiveness, and improves worker productivity.
professionalism and social media
Professionalism and social media
  • Topic 6b: Professionalism and social media Topic 6b details Discussions
  • The rise of social media has opened up enormous opportunity for professional advancement by carefully maintaining an online professional presence. However, it can be a double edged sword unless caution is exercised! This topic will introduce you to a range of issues and methods which will help you to develop and maintain an effective online professional presence using social media.  This will help you to have a sound structure to enter the workforce as a professional and advance your career.
main questions
Main questions
  • Main questions
  • In your reading and thinking for this topic, keep the following questions in mind:
  • -          What are the dos and don’ts of engaging professionally using social media?
  • -          How to use social media to create an e-portfolio consisting of skill assessment and career plan to be used for career advancement?
  • -          How to manage your online presence to land a job and boost your career?
rules of professional networking success using social media
Rules of professional networking success using social media
  • Rules of professional networking success using social media
  • Social media has revolutionised the concept of professional networking. However, while social media has professional networking exponentially easier, there are easy ways to slip up and such slip ups can be costly! In this topic we discuss the dos and don’ts of professional networking using social media. The following article describes five rules of thumb to follow while engaging in professional networking using social media.
  • Klamm, D.(2010). 5 Rules for Professional Social Networking Success.

1. Know Your Platforms

  • Social media is messy. Across Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other social networks, we are connected to a mix of close friends, college buddies, high school classmates, co-workers, bosses, former bosses, I-met-you-at-a-party-once acquaintances, and people we've never even seen face-to-face.
  • Each social media platform has a certain reputation. For instance, LinkedIn is generally a business site, while Twitter is more "laid back" and often mixes professional and personal content. Respect the way that people use these sites. Adding a professional acquaintance as a friend on Facebook can be invasive, especially if that individual is a traditionalist who uses Facebook purely for personal contact with friends and family. Likewise, asking an old friend for a recommendation on LinkedIn might create awkwardness if the person has no experience with you in a professional capacity.

2. Customize Everything

  • From LinkedIn connection requests to advice-seeking Facebook messages to 140-character chatter on Twitter, you should customize every communication sent on social networks. It shows that you value your unique connection with the recipient. It's easy for people to feel used when you send them a generic request or a message that's clearly copy-and-pasted to dozens of others (especially if you forget to change the names!).

3. Ask for Something Specific

  • When you approach someone for career help via social media, know what you want out of the interaction and ask specific questions that show you've done your research. Often, people send messages along the lines of "I'm looking to go into marketing. Any advice or leads would be greatly appreciated!" or "Can you tell me more about this job?" in a Twitter DM. These types of messages are so broad that it's difficult to provide a meaningful and relevant response.

4. Take It Offline Whenever Possible

  • Nothing beats face-to-face interaction or voice-to-voice interaction, when geography prevents you from being in the same location. Social media platforms are great for making introductions and warming up relationships, but ultimately you should take your networking conversations beyond the confines of Twitter and LinkedIn.
  • In-person meetings allow you to build stronger relationships than back-and-forth messaging online. Things like body language, eye contact, and tone of voice are all essential in helping to establish rapport and build a bond. When this isn’t possible, one solution is to request a Skype call. Not only can you see the person, but you know that you’re getting their full attention.

5. Say "Thank You"

  • It's a simple step that many people miss. Show appreciation when someone does something nice for you online. Whether it's responding to a few questions, retweeting a link to your blog post, or even connecting you with one of their friends — it's always appropriate to express your gratitude. It's especially important to follow-up after someone has provided advice. People like to feel helpful, so let them know if their advice was useful for you.

Landing a job using social media

  • Not only social media has made professional networking much easier for job seekers, more and more recruiters are actually relying on social media to find the right employee. LinkedIn( ) is currently the most prominent professional networking site and a LinkedIn profile is effectively an online resume. Recruiters are increasingly using LinkedIn to find their next best employee or even to check out potential employees who have already applied for positions in their organizations. It is naturally important to manage your online presence, particularly in LinkedIn, carefully.
what recruiters want to see on your linkedin profile
What Recruiters Want to See on Your LinkedIn Profile
  • 1. Completeness
  • Simply put, the more complete your profile, the better the odds that the recruiter will find you in the first place. So completeness is important from that standpoint.
  • It’s also important after the recruiter has found you and decided to click on your profile. That recruiter is looking for details: She wants to know what you know how to do, where you’ve worked, and what people think of you, so don’t laze out and skip these steps. The good news? LinkedIn will actually measure the “completeness” of your profile as you work and offer suggestions on how to make it stronger.

2. Your Picture

  • LinkedIn was designed as a tool to encourage engagement and conversation. So, I ask you: Is it easier or harder to connect with someone when you can put a face with the name? Easier, of course. Choose a clear, friendly, and appropriately professional image and pop that baby up there. Not sure what “appropriately professional” means? Take a look around at what the people in your target company, industry sector, or business level are wearing. Match that.

3. A Network

  • Having 50 or fewer connections on LinkedIn tells recruiters one of three things: 1) You are a recluse who knows very few people, 2) You’re paranoid about connecting with others, or 3) Technology and social media are scary to you. None of these are good. I’m certainly not suggesting you need to be one of those weirdos who wears your “abnormally large number of connections” like a badge of honor, but you really should have at least 50-100 people with whom you’re connected as a starting point.

4. Details That Indicate “High Performer”

  • Recruiters spend countless hours scouring LinkedIn in search of the high performers. And when they find them, they contact said high performers. Knowing this, you’ll serve yourself well to market yourself as a high performer, through your verbiage (think action words, accomplishments—you know, the same stuff that stands out on resumes) and by having multiple endorsements. (Want some? Start endorsing others—they’re bound to return the favor.)

5. Evidence That You’re Passionate, Engaged, and Excited

  • The most exciting people to hire are the people who are the most excited about what they do. Show your enthusiasm by joining and participating in groups related to your field of expertise. Use your status line to announce stuff you’re doing related to your field. Share interesting articles or news. Connect with the leaders in your industry. Fly your cheerleader flag.

6. Recommendations

  • It goes without saying that third-party testimonials go a long way. Great third-party testimonials go even farther. So ask a few key people to write a LinkedIn recommendation for you, and be specific: Tell the person precisely what you’d love showcased and offer specific examples.
  • Recruiters often send their own clients (the companies doing the hiring) right to a job seeker’s LinkedIn page if the recommendations look good, so taking the time to solicit a few great ones can pay serious dividends.

How social media can hurt your career

  • As has been mentioned before, social media can be a double edged sword. While social media help advance your career, it can also hurt your career if you are not careful how you conduct yourself online. The following article lists ten social media blunders that are likely to hurt your career!
how social media can hurt your career
How social media can hurt your career
  • Tweet About an Interview or Job Offer
  • In what is now known as the “Cisco Fatty” incident, a graduate student scored a paid internship at Cisco, then promptly tweeted, “Cisco just offered me a job! Now I have to weigh the utility of a fatty paycheck against the daily commute to San Jose and hating the work.” 

Play Hooky

  • Kevin Colvin will forever live in Facebook ignominy as an intern who claimed a family emergency on Halloween ... but his co-workers saw a time-stamped picture of him dressed as a fairy and holding a beer. His boss fired him, CC’ing the entire company and including the picture. Now, getting caught online while playing hooky is called "pulling a Facebook Fairy." 

Criticize Your Work Conditions … Unless You’re Serious

  • Five employees of the National Hispanics of Buffalo complained on Facebook about their company, and were all fired, even though they posted when they weren't at work.

4 / 10

  • Post Off-Color or Tasteless Remarks
  • Examples abound of people being fired for racist and insensitive remarks, but some employers' grounds for firing are subtler. A Walmart employee was fired for making remarks on Facebook like, “The government needs to step in and set a limit on the kids people are allowed to have based on their income. If you can’t afford to feed them, you shouldn’t be allowed to have them!!!” An offended customer reported him to management.

Tell the World That You’re Bored

  • One entry-level employee complained about her boredom on Facebook, and was promptly dismissed with a letter firing her because "you are not happy and do not enjoy your work." Although saying you’re bored might be an obvious flub, far too many employees still post remarks like, “This work week is dragging.” That could still be considered a dig at your employer.

Badmouth Your Clients

  • One Starbucks employee was fired when an (actually quite clever) YouTube video of him singing criticisms of customers reached Starbucks executives.

Pick a Public Fight

  • When a PR professional tweeted about her frustration with a mean reporter, the reporter jumped into the ring and cursed at her in several tweets. Of course, this bad behavior wound up all over the internet. The reporter's newspaper had to issue an apology on his behalf. If he hadn’t already resigned to work elsewhere, he probably would have been fired.

Talk Trash About Your Boss, Colleagues or Organization

  • One reporter used Twitter to criticize typos from his colleagues and make fun of an intern. His snarky tweets were copied into an email and forwarded around the newsroom, leading to a sharp reprimand from his boss.

Hang Loose When You Work With Children

  • When it's your job to mold young minds, even small indiscretions can get blown out of proportion. Posting pictures from a bachelorette party, making fun of a student’s haircut and calling students “germ bags,” have all brought down the ire of parents and officials on teachers’ heads. One teacher was even fired for posting pictures of herself with alcoholic drinks in her hands, though she wasn’t Facebook friends with any of her students.