afa 58 s b sc b ed f dnnlgx lx1fs ljj sfg n ljnf ip hl0if tfp wfg zf lhp agf sf 9 f n.
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AFA] 58[, s B.Sc., B.Ed. f DNNlGX lX1FS lJJ[SFGN lJnF,IP Hl0IF TFP WFG[ZF lHP AGF;SF9 F. lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL WMZ6 o!_ 5|SZ6 o 5IF"JZ6 VG[ 5IF"JZ6LI ;D:IFVM. 5IF"JZ6 V[8,[ cc VF56[ VG[ VF56L VFH]AFH]G] AW] H cc.

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lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL WMZ6 o!_ 5|SZ6 o 5IF"JZ6 VG[ 5IF"JZ6LI ;D:IFVM


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  1. AFA] 58[, s B.Sc., B.Ed.f DNNlGX lX1FS lJJ[SFG\N lJnF,IP Hl0IF TFP WFG[ZF lHP AGF;SF\9F lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHLWMZ6 o!_ 5|SZ6 o 5IF"JZ6 VG[ 5IF"JZ6LI ;D:IFVM

  2. 5IF"JZ6V[8,[ cc VF56[ VG[ VF56L VFH]AFH]G]\ AW]\ H cc

  3. 1.JgI5|F6LGF lGJF; :YFGDF\ W8F0M 2. 5F6LGM jII 3. H\U,GM GFX 4. HDLGG]\ WMJF6 5. Z6G]\ VFU/ JWJ]\ 6. H{JlJlJWTFGM W8F0M 5IF"JZ6LI ;D:IFVM

  4. 5|N}QF6 VG[ T[GF 5|SFZM • VF56F CJF4 5F6L S[ E}lDDF\ YTF VlGrKLI4 EF{lTS4 ZF;FIl6S S[ H{lJS O[ZOFZMG[ 5|N}QF6 SC[ K[P • 1 CJFG]\ 5|N}QF6 • 2 H, 5|N}QF6 • 3 E}lDG]\ 5|N}QF6

  5. CJFGF 5|N}QF6GF S]NZTL :+MT NFJFG/ ZHS6M VG[ VF\WL HJF/FD]BL JG:5lTGM SMCJF8 5|SFX5|[lZT ZF;FIl6S lS|IFVM 5ZFUZH

  6. CJFGF 5|N}QF6GF DFGJ;lH"T :+MT VF{nMlUSZ6 lJDFGM VG[ I]âM V6]5lZ1F6 JFCGMGF W]DF0F S'lQF pnMU 5FJZ :8[XGM

  7. CJFGF 5|N}QF6GF DFGJ;lH"T :+MT T[, lZOF>GZL JG S8F> 3Z J5ZFXG]\ A/T6 BF6 pnMU

  8. CJFGF 5|N}QF6GL CFlGSFZS V;ZM • 1 VF\B4 GFS VG[ U/FDF\ A/TZF • 2 SO2VG[ NO2SFZ6[ V:YDF VG[ A|MgSF>8L; H[JL O[O;FGL lADFZLVMP • 3 S[g;Z5|[ZS 5|N}QFS ãjIMYL S[g;Z YFIP

  9. 4 l;D[g8 O[S8ZLDF\ SFD SZGFZG[ l;,SM;L; ZMU YFI VG[ V[:A[:8M;YL V[:A[:8M;L; ZMU YFIP • 5 EFZ[ WFT]VM `JF;YL XZLZDF\ NFB, Y. h[ZL V;Z O[,FJ[ • 6 VMhMGGF :TZGF 38F0FG[ SFZ6[ 5FZHFA,L lSZ6M YL tJRFG]\ S[g;Z TYF VF\BG[ G]SXFG YFIP

  10. V[l;0JQF"F • JFTFJZ6DF\ ZC[,F JFI]VM SO2VG[ NO2 E[HDF\ ãFjI Y> H2SO4VG[ HNO3AGFJ[ K[ T[G[ V[l;0 JQF"F SC[ K[P T[ 5|FRLG :DFZSM VG[ >DFZTG[ G]SXFG SZ[P

  11. U|LGCFp; V;Z • SFA"G 0FIMS;F>04 lDY[G JU[Z[ UZDL XMQFL ,[JFGM U]6WD" K[P T[YL UZDLGL H[ V;Z YFI T[G[ U|LGCFp; V;Z SC[ K[PT[GFYL TF5DFG JWTF W|]JLI 5|N[XMGM AZO 5LU/[ K[ VG[ ;D]ãGL ;5F8LDF\ JWFZM YFI K[P

  12. (A) JFI]:J~5GF 5|N}QFSMGF lGI\+6GL 5âlT • (1)NCG5âlT o SFA"lGSJFI]:J~5DF\ VYJF AFQ5 :J~5[ CMI T[G[ NCG5âlT ãFZF 5F6LGL JZF/ VG[ VMKF CFlGSFZS SFA"G 0FIMS;F>0GF :J~5DF\ O[ZJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P • (2)XMQF65âlT o VFDF\ RMÞ; 5|SFZGF XMQFS 5|JFCL DF\YL 5|N}lQFT CJF 5;FZ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[YL RMÞ; 5|SFZGF 5|N}QFS JFI]VMG]\ XMQF6 YFI K[4 T[YL CJF X]â YFI K[P

  13. (B) S6 :J~5GF 5|N}QFSMGF lGI\+6GL 5âlT (1) J[8 :S|A;" • VF 5âlT ZF;FIl6S ãjIM4BF6 BMNJL4WFT] 5'YÞZ6 VG[ SFZBFGFVM DF\YL D]ST YTF\ ;<OZ0FIMS;F>0 VG[ V[DMlGIF G[ 5|N}lQFT CJFDF\YL N}Z SZJF p5IMUDF\ ,[JFI K[P

  14. (2)JLH5|:YFl5T VJ1F[5S • CJFGF 5|N}QFS AFQ5 S[ E[H :J~5[ CMI tIFZ[ T[GF ZHS6M 5Z JLHEFZG]\ lGDF"6SZL T[DG[ JLHJFCSM TZO B[\RL N}Z SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

  15. H, 5|N}QF6GF :+MT lJlSZ6LI SRZM pnMUM BFTZM T[, J:TLlJ:OM8 H\T]GFXSM G]SXFGSFZS ;}1DHLJM ;]V[H

  16. H, 5|N}QF6GL CFlGSFZS V;ZM • 1. DZSI]ZL 5|N}lQFT 5F6L 5LJFYL DLGFDF8F H[JF ZMU SIFZ[S HLJ,[6 GLJ0L XS[ • 2. 5F6LDF\ ãJ[,F DZSI]ZL4 S[0lDID4 SMAF<8GF 1FFZM VG[ ;\IMHGM T[DH VgI VX]lâVM ãFZF DG]QI ;lCTGF 5|F6LVMG[ VlT;FZ YFI K[P • 3. H, 5|N}QF6 ;}1DHLJM VG[ DFK,LVMGF D'tI] DF8[ SFZ6E}T K[P

  17. 4.5F6LGL ;5F8L 5Z JW] 50TF T[,GF O[,FJFYL VMlS;HGGL DF+FDF\ 38F0M YTF\ H,LI ;HLJMGL `J;GlS|IF ~WFI K[P • 5. 5LJFGF RMbBF 5F6L SZTF\ 5|N}lQFT 5F6LDF\ BOD JW] CMI K[ BOD JW[ H,LI ;HLJM D'tI] 5FD[ K[P

  18. ZMlH\NM D/5|JFC VG[ BFTZMDF\ HIFZ[ JW] DF+F DF\ 5F6L E/[ tIFZ[ GF>8=[8 VG[ OM:O[8G]\ 5|DF6 JW[ K[ T[YL ,L, VG[ VgI ;}1DHLJMGM lJSF; VG[SU6M JW[ K[ VG[ VFG[ SFZ6[ 5F6LG]\ lGJ;GT\+ VF 5|SFZGF HLJMYL EZF> HFI K[ VG[ O2 5|DF6 38[ VFD 5MQFS TtJMGL V;ZYL pt5gG YTF 5|N}QF6G[ ;]5MQFSTFSZ6 SC[ K[4 T[YL BODJW[ H[YL ;HLJM D'tI] 5FD[ K[P ;]5MQFSTFSZ6

  19. 5|FYlDS TAÞF DF\ DM8F VG[ lG,\lATãjIM V,U SZL lAG CFlGSFZS AG[ H[G[ 9FZ6 SC[ K[P ALHF TAÞF DF\ 5F6LG[ O2I]ST CJFDF\YL 5;FZ SZL HLJF6] 5|lSIF SZL SFA"lGSãjIM lJW8G SZL S,MlZG[XG SZFI K[P V\lTD TAÞF DF\ 5F6LDF\YL GF>8=[84 OM:O[8 JU[Z[ N}Z SZL X]â 5F6L D[/JFI K[P 5F6LG]\ 5|N}QF6 V8SFJJFGF p5FI VG[ lGI\+6 (1);]V[H;FZJFZ

  20. VF{nMlUS VG[ ;]V[H GF 5|JFCL SRZMG[ ;FZJFZ VF5JF DF8[ ZLT NEERI GFU5]Z ãFZF T{IFZ SZL K[P SRZFJF/F 5F6LG[ D\N SZL KLKZF T/FJDF\ ;\U|CJFDF\ VFJ[ T[G[ VMlS;0[XG T/FJ SC[ K[PT[DF YM0F ;DI AFN T[DF\ ;]1DHLJM4 ,L, O[,FJTF\ lJW8SM SFA"lGS TtJMG]\ VMlS;0[XG SZL 5F6LG[ X]â SZ[ K[P VMlS;0[XG T/FJ

  21. E}lDGF 5|N}QF6GF :+MT lJlSZ6LI SRZM WFT]VM BFTZM %,Fl:8S ZAZ4 5]]\9F DF8L SM,;M BFW SRZM H\T]GFXSM

  22. E}lDGF 5|N}QF6GF :+MT T]8[,F SFR AFWSFDGL ;FDU|L 5[5Z 5|F6LVMGF D'tI]N[CM

  23. E}lDGF 5|N}QF6GL V;ZM • V[S ;ZJ[ 5|DF6[ NZ K DF;[ HDLGGL p5Z ;5F8LG]\ V[8,]\ AW] WMJF6 YFI S[ T[DF\YL WMJFTL DF8LYL VFBF N[XGF DSFGMGL .\8M T{IFZ Y> XS[ K[P • B[TL,FIS HDLG lAGp5IMUL AG[ K[P • VlJW8GLI lS8GFXSM H[JF S[ l,\UL V\T:+FJM D\N 50[ K[ VG[ S[l<XIDGL p65 ;HF"I K[P

  24. E}lDGF 5|N}QF6 V8SFJJFGF p5FIM VG[ lGI\+6 • H{lJS5|lSIFVM ãFZF 5|N}QFSMG]\ lJW8GSZL N}Z SZL XSFIP • T[G]\ ;[lgãI BFTZDF\ ~5F\TZ SZL XSFI K[P • VlJW8GLI SRZFG[ BF0FVM 5}ZJF p5IMU SZL XSFIP • SRZFG[ AF/JF lJlXQ8 5|SFZGL EõLG]\ lGDF"6 SZL XSFIP

  25. H{J lJW8GLI 5|N}QFSM • H[ 5|N}QFSMG]\ ;}1DHLJM ãFZF lJW8G Y. XS[ K[4 T[G[ H{J lJW8GLI 5|N}QFSM SC[ K[P • WZJ5ZFXGM SRZMD/D}+ • ;]V[HGM 3GSRZM B[TZGM 50JFX • 5[5Z ,FS0]\ • S50F\

  26. H{J VlJW8GLI 5|N}QFSM • H[ 5|N}QFSMG]\ ;}1DHLJM ãFZF lJW8G YT]\ GYL4 T[G[ • H{J VlJW8GLI 5|N}QFSM SC[ K[P • DDT5FZM • ;L;]\ V[<I]lDlGID • VF;["lGS H\T]GFXSM

  27. 5IF"JZ6LI ;DT],G • NZ[S ;HLJ DF8[ 5IF"JZ6LI ;DT],G B]A H~ZL K[P T[ • DF8[ ;DU| 5IF"JZ6 5|N}QF6ZlCT CMI V[ B]A DCtJG]\ K[P • 5|N}QF6G[ SFZ6[ 5IF"JZ6 5MTFGL ;DT],F U]DFJX[4 TM • T[GL lJ5ZLT V;ZMYL ;HLJGF HLJG p5Z BTZM pEM • YX[P 5IF"JZ6GL ;DT],F H/JFI T[ DF8[ NZ[S 5]Go5|F%I S[ • 5]Go V5|F%I :+MTMGM lJJ[S5}J"S p5IMU SZL5IF"JZ6GL • HFU'lT VFJ[ T[JF 5|ItGM SZJF HM>V[P NZ[S H6 5lZ;ZG[ • 5MTFG]\ 3Z ;DH[ TM 5IF"JZ6 VF5MVF5 ;DT]l,T YX[P

  28. J:TL4 5IF"JZ6 VG[ lJSF;GF VF\TZ;\A\WM • J:TLlJ:OM8 V[ 5IF"JZ6 VG[ lJSF; A\G[ DF8[ U\ELZ • ;DlIF AGL K[ T[G[ SFZ6[ BMZFSGL H~lZIFT JWTF\ JW] • B[Tpt5FNG D[/JJF JW] H\T]GFXSM VG[ S'l+D BFTZMGM • p5IMU SZJM 50[ K[P T[G[ SFZ6[ 5|N}QF6 YFI P • J:TLlJ:OM8 YL BMZFS45F6L4J;JF8GL H~lZIFT JWTF • B[TLGL HDLGM4H\U,M4S]NZTL JgIHLJMGF\ lGJF;:YFGMG]\ • lGS\NG GLS/L UI] K[P • J:TL45IF"JZ64lJSF; JrR[ ;FTtI H/JFJ]]\ H~ZL K[P

  29. 5IF"JZ6GL HF/J6L VG[ ;\Z1F6 • 5IF"JZ6GL HF/J6L V[8,[ V[JL 5|J'lTVM S[ H[GF ãFZF jIlSTUT S[ ;FD}lCS ZLT[ VFlY"S OFINM YFI VG[ ;FY[ ;FY[ 5IF"JZ6G[ G]SXFG 56 G YFIP5IF"JZ6GF ;\Z1F6 DF8[ NZ[S N[X ãFZF T[DH lJ`JS1FFV[ VG[S SFINF AGFJJFDF\ VFjIF K[4 H[GLDNNYL 5IF"JZ6GL HF/J6L VG[ ;\Z1F6 SZL XSFI K[P DFGJLDF\ T[GF lJX[ HFU'lT GCL VFJ[ tIF\;]WL 5IF"JZ6GL HF/J6L VG[ ;\Z1F6 XSI GYLP

  30. 5IF"JZ6LI ;\Z1F6WFZFVM • V[gJFIZD[g8s5|M8[SXGf V[S8 - 1986 • OMZ[:8sSghJ["XGf V[S8 - 1980 • JM8Zsl5J[\XG V[g0 S\8=M, VMO 5M<I]XGfV[S8 - 1974 • JF><0 ,F>O s5|M8[SXGf V[S8 - 1972 • WL DM8Z jCLS, V[S8 - 1983 • l5J[gXG VMO S|]V[l,8L 8] V[GLD<; V[S8 - 1966 • V[Z sl5J[gXG V[g0 S\8=M, VMO 5M<I]XGf V[S8 - 1981 • WL >g;[lS8;F>0 V[S8 - 1968

  31. J'1FM JFJM JZ;FN ,FJM