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A Dual-Aspect Panpsychist Critique of Emergentist, Quantum and Wilber’s Holonic Theories of Consciousness. Anand Rangarajan Yale University. Logical Supervenience. Almost everything is logically supervenient on the physical. Exceptions are: Experience Physical laws

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A Dual-Aspect Panpsychist Critique of Emergentist, Quantum and Wilber’s Holonic Theories of Consciousness

Anand Rangarajan

Yale University

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

logical supervenience
Logical Supervenience
  • Almost everything is logically supervenient on the physical.
  • Exceptions are:
    • Experience
    • Physical laws
    • Awareness (locus of self)
  • Causal closure of physical world renders experience epiphenomenal.
  • Introduce Gregg Rosenberg’s dual-aspect panpsychist “LiberalNaturalism” approach.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

experience and causation

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Experience and Causation
  • Physical facts do not entail experiential facts.
  • From (1), experience is non-physical.
  • Physical explanations are a complete explanation of causation. [Denied here.]
  • From (2) and (3), experience lies outside the causal structure and is irrelevant.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

a new metaphysics of causation

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

A New Metaphysics of Causation
  • Humean regularity theories of causation demolished.
  • Receptivity: degree of sensitivity to other effective states.
    • Receptivity is not logically supervenient on the physical.
    • Visualized as a directed graph.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

receptivity and spacetime

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Receptivity and Spacetime
  • Direction of time supervenes on asymmetric receptive connections.
  • Causality condition on locality and not a locality condition on causality.
  • Roughly visualized as a Markov chain.

: Receptive prop.

: Effective prop.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

slide6

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Avatars in a “real” CG world

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

carrier theory of causation

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Carrier theory of causation
  • Receptive and effective properties form a compositional circularity.
  • Contrastive circularities in any system have to be carried by external carriers.
  • Good example is user semantics in GUIs.
  • Contrasts in physics are not carried by anything extrinsic to physics.
  • Phenomenal qualities carry effective properties.
  • Experiencing of qualities carries receptive connections.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

phenomenal individuals

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Phenomenal Individuals
  • Phenomenal individuals carry the nomic content of natural individuals.
  • Every natural individual is a phenomenal individual.
  • Individuals can contain other individuals.
  • Such containment implies multiple spacetime reference frames.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

hierarchical spacetime frames

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Hierarchical Spacetime Frames
  • Each individual has own spacetime frame of reference.
  • Each spacetime built up from asynchronous receptive connections.
  • Compositional hierarchy of individuals may be separated into same level versus different levels.
  • Overlapping spacetimes at same level can cohere.
  • Possibility spaces of higher levels under constrained by lower levels.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

ontology epistemology

Rosenberg’s Liberal Naturalism

Ontology & Epistemology
  • Directed graph of receptive connections needed in physics.
  • Duality of effective and receptive properties.
  • Causation and spacetime placed in the framework of the directed graph.
  • Receptive connections epistemically opaque but ontologically clear.
  • Experience is epistemically clear but ontologically opaque.
  • Clean duality exploited in this approach.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

twenty tenets

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Twenty Tenets
  • Reality not composed of things or processes, but of holons.
    • Insufficient distinction made between emergent functional properties and natural individuals.
  • Holons display self-preservation, self-adaptation, self-transcendence and self-dissolution.
    • Biology driven bias.
  • Holons emerge.
  • Holons emerge holarchically.
    • One-dimensional, temporal emergence.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

twenty tenets contd

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Twenty tenets (contd.)
  • Each emergent holon transcends and includes its predecessors.
    • One-dimensional (see above).
  • The lower sets the possibilities for the higher, the higher sets the probabilities of the lower.
    • No explanation of the distinction between possibility and probability.
  • Number of levels in a hierarchy – depth. Number of holons on a given level – span.
    • Hierarchies can be tangled.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

twenty tenets contd1

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Twenty tenets (contd.)
  • Each successive level of evolution produces greater depth and less span.
    • Evolution is irrelevant.
  • Greater the depth of the holon, greater the degree of consciousness.
    • Consciousness undefined.
  • Destroy any type of holon and you will destroy all of the holons above it and none of the holons below it.
    • Great Goddess destroyed when universe is destroyed? Modification: If universe never existed, Goddess destroyed.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

twenty tenets contd2

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Twenty tenets (contd.)
  • Holoarchies coevolve.
    • Evolution is irrelevant.
  • Micro is in relational exchange with the macro at all levels.
    • Fine.

Evolution has

    • Directionality,
    • Increasing complexity,
    • Increasing differentiation/integration,
    • Increasing organization/structuration,
    • Increasing autonomy, and
    • Increasing telos.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

twenty tenets contd3

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Twenty tenets (contd.)
  • Every holon issues an IOU to the Kosmos.
  • All IOUs are redeemed in emptiness (shunyata).
    • Mysticism bracketed out.

Capsule summary: Functional properties of

evolution and self-organization synthesized

together with qualia. Does not take into

account supervenience relations.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

overall critique

Critique of Wilber’s holonic approach

Overall critique
  • Critical temporal issues implicit in twenty tenets.
  • Over-reliance on evolution and self-organization as twenty tenets base.
  • Supervenience relations not mentioned.
  • Hierarchies not constructed using receptive and effective properties.
  • Emergence linked to time.

“The manifest All-Unity evolves as All-Form, the summit application of the twenty tenets.”

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

evolution and self organization

Critique of emergentist approach

Evolution and self-organization
  • Self-organization and selection: cornerstone of emergentist approach.
  • Direction of time assumed as well as single spacetime.
  • Evolution only selects functional properties.
  • Self-organization does not distinguish between emergent functional properties and natural individuals.
  • No fundamental understanding of causation.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

quantum theory and experience

Critique of Quantum Approaches

Quantum Theory and Experience
  • Several unique features of QM.
    • Selection from a space of possibilities (measurement problem.)
    • EPR non-locality.
    • Bose-Einstein “holistic” condensates.
    • Interpretation of wave function.
  • Projection operators performing selection (Stapp).
  • Orch OR non-computational collapse of wave function (Hameroff and Penrose).
  • Other approaches (Albert, Squires, Goswami, Lockwood, Hodgson, Bohm).

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html

overall critique1

Critique of Quantum Approaches

Overall Critique
  • Chalmers: “Even given a nonlocal, physical process, it remains logically possible that the process could take place in the absence of consciousness.”
  • Projection operators, non-local and non-computational processes conceived in functional terms.
  • Quantum measurement problem and non-locality in EPR: clues to an asynchronous model?
  • Asynchronous causation has potential to unite quantum theory and general relativity.

Anand Rangarajan. URL:http://noodle.med.yale.edu/anand/profile.html