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18.2 The Carbon and nitrogen cycle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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18.2 The Carbon and nitrogen cycle. Our Biosphere. Learning Targets. Describe the short term cycling of carbon through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration Identify carbon sinks and carbon sources Describe short term and long term storage of carbon

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learning targets
Learning Targets
  • Describe the short term cycling of carbon through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration
  • Identify carbon sinks and carbon sources
  • Describe short term and long term storage of carbon
  • Describe how human actions interfere with the natural carbon cycle
  • Describe the nitrogen cycle
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • All life on earth is built around carbon atoms
  • Carbon is found in many forms:
    • Atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide)
    • Biosphere (Carbohydrates)
    • Hydrosphere (Calcium carbonate)
    • Geosphere (Carbon arrangement)
long term cycles
Long term cycles
  • Organic materials are buried
    • AKA – Fossil Fuels
    • Peat, coal, tar, oil, soil
  • Carbon stored in the ocean
    • Many ocean creatures use calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to make their shells or to make the reef material where coral animals live.
carbon sinks and carbon sources
Carbon Sinks and Carbon Sources
  • Carbon sources (add carbon)
    • Fossil fuel use, deforestation, animals, decaying plant remains
  • Carbon sinks (store carbon)
    • Healthy living forests and our oceans act as carbon sinks.
  • Reservoirs can change from a sink to source and vice-versa
human actions impact carbon cycle
Human Actions Impact Carbon Cycle
  • Largest source of atmospheric CO2 is burning fossil fuels
  • When we burn coal, oil, or natural gas, we release the stored carbon in the process of combustion. That means that combustion of fossil fuels is also a carbon source.
human actions impact carbon cycle1
Human Actions Impact Carbon Cycle
  • Second largest source of atmospheric CO2 is deforestation
  • Carbon sink – Trees absorb CO2
  • When trees are cut, lose ability to absorb CO2
  • Carbon source- If tree is burned or decomposes
why carbon cycle is important
Why Carbon Cycle is Important
  • Why small amounts of CO2 important?
  • CO2 absorbs infrared energy from Sun
  • Greenhouse gases trap heat that should radiate out into space
  • Greenhouse gas levels increase, global temperatures increase = Global Warming
the nitrogen cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Most abundant gas in atmosphere
  • Essential component of organic materials
    • Amino Acids
    • Proteins
    • DNA and RNA
    • Chlorophyll molecules used for photosynthesis
the nitrogen cycle1
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Must be “fixed” or converted to a usable form
  • “Fixed” in 3 ways
    • Lightning
    • Blue-green algae
    • Mainly “fixed” by bacteria in soil
  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria combine nitrogen with oxygen = nitrates or ammonia