International trade
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International Trade. BTEC Business. Look at the Trade W/S. What is a “Free Trade Zone”? What do they do? Where are they located? What’s good/bad about them? What are trading blocs? What are import tariffs and why are they used?. Trading Blocs.

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International trade

International Trade

BTEC Business

Look at the trade w s
Look at the Trade W/S...

  • What is a “Free Trade Zone”?

  • What do they do?

  • Where are they located?

  • What’s good/bad about them?

  • What are trading blocs?

  • What are import tariffs and why are they used?

Trading blocs
Trading Blocs

  • A trading bloc is where a group of nations agree to allow free-trade between themselves but impose tariffs (charges) on other countries who wish to trade with them (E.U).

  • Some people believe these trading blocs are unfair to non-members as it is more difficult for them to trade.

Trade barriers
Trade Barriers

  • the EU’s internal market is about removing barriers to free movement of goods, services, people and capital

  • the flow of goods and services in the world economy is also important

  • organisations have been set up to encourage the removal of barriers to free global trade

Epz s and free trade zones
EPZ’s And Free Trade Zones

  • Export Processing Zones: Labour-intensive manufacturing centres that involve the import of raw materials and the export of factory products.

  • Free Trade Zones: Where manufacturing does not have to take place for trading privileges to be gained (retailing).

Popularity of epz s
Popularity Of EPZ’s...

  • Problems of Indebtedness.

  • Open economies.

  • Multi-National Corporations to locate.

    LEDC’s Offer...

  • Trade.

  • Investment (Big/Small).

  • Taxation.

Why the stress on free world trade
Why the stress on free world trade?

  • The world economy went into a deep depression in the 1930s, as many countries closed their barriers to trade with other states. This led to:

  • Mass unemployment

  • Social upheaval

  • Rise of fascism and the Second World War

How to prevent chaos happening again
How to prevent chaos happening again?

  • Global powers set up bodies to support international trade

  • International Monetary Fund

  • World Bank

  • All countries encouraged to join these organisations, or face exclusion from benefits of free world trade

What do the imf and world bank do
What do the IMF and World Bank do?


  • Lends to countries with balance of payments problems

  • Pushes for economic reforms

  • Reports on policies in member states

What do the imf and world bank do1
What do the IMF and World Bank do?

World Bank:

  • Aims to help development by advising and lending – with many conditions

  • Countries encouraged to lift import and export barriers, cut subsidies and remove price controls

Criticisms of imf
Criticisms of IMF

IMF only lends money if countries agree to:

  • Sell their resources cheaply

  • Cut public spending

    Critics say this serves to increase the problems of poverty in poor member countries

Criticisms of world bank
Criticisms of World Bank

Loans depend on countries agreeing a ‘Structural Adjustment Programme’

  • Leads to rapid increase in price of goods in country

  • Increases poverty

  • Lower investment and cut social spending

    Little evidence that these policies work

What about the world trade organisation wto
What about the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?

  • The WTO deals with the rules of trade between countries

  • It developed from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  • WTO agreements set the ground rules for international commerce

Why so much outrage over globalisation
Why so much outrage over globalisation?

Other than the criticisms raised earlier, opponents of globalisation point to:

  • Falling share of world trade taken by developing countries

  • Subsidies and tariffs set by rich developed economies: USA steel tariffs, EU agricultural subsidies are two of the culprits