Tools of the trade. Pictures and Notes to be used in lab. Test tubes. Used as a container for small experiments with chemicals in any state of matter Can be heated and capped with a rubber stopper. Test Tube Rack.
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Tools of the trade Pictures and Notes to be used in lab
Test tubes • Used as a container for small experiments with chemicals in any state of matter • Can be heated and capped with a rubber stopper
Test Tube Rack • test tube rack holds test tubes so that they do not break and their contents do not spill.
Test Tube Holder • A test tube holder is useful for holding a test tube which is too hot to handle.
Test Tube Brush • Used to clean test tubes after use
Watch Glass • A watch glass is used to hold a small amount of solid, such as the product of a reaction
Digital Scale • Used to obtain the mass of small objects to the nearest tenth or hundredth of a gram • Placing heavy objects or pushing down on the digital scales in this class will permanently damage them, so DO NOT DO IT
Spatula (scoopula) • A scoopula is used to transfer solids. It is often used to transfer solids from a container into a weighing vessel.
Weighing Paper (boat) • Weighing boats are used to weigh solids that will be transferred to another vessel.
Erlenmeyer Flask • Erlenmeyer flasks hold solids or liquids that may release gases during a reaction or that are likely to splatter if stirred or heated. • The top of a flask can be capped by a rubber stopper
Buret (Eye Dropper) • A medicine dropper is used to transfer a small volume of liquid (less than one mL).
Magnetic Stirrer and stir bar • A magnetic stirrer is usually a separate feature of a hot plate. • A stirbar is used with a magnetic stirring plate to continuously stir solutions. • If the liquid should be stirred while it is being heated, the vessel should contain a magnetic stir bar
Pipette • A Mohr pipet measures and delivers exact volumes of liquids.
Pipette Bulb • A pipette bulb is used with a Mohr pipette to draw solution into the pipette.
Wash Bottle • A wash bottle has a spout that delivers a wash solution to a specific area. Distilled water is the only liquid that should be used in a wash bottle.
Filter Paper • The picture shows a piece of filter paper in a funnel. • A coarse grade of paper will allow the liquid to flow through the paper faster, but it may allow small solid particles to pass through. • A finer grade of paper will filter smaller solid particles, but it causes liquid to flow more slowly and its pores may easily become clogged.
Funnel • A funnel is used to aid in the transfer liquid from one vessel to another.
600 ml Beaker • Beakers hold solids or liquids that will not release gases when reacted or are unlikely to splatter if stirred or heated. • 600 ml and 1000 ml are the most common large beaker sizes; used primarily as the container where chemicals are mixed and/or heated
Hot plate • Place the vessel containing the liquid to be heated on the plate. • Turn on the hotplate using the heating control knob. • The red light flashes to indicate the heat setting.
Boiling Stones • Beads made from glass or other non reactive material. • Highly resistant to attack by most cold liquids, hot liquids, and vapors that may interact with magnetic stirring rods • Beads are durable and will not disintegrate or affect delicate compounds like a glass stirring rod.
Stirring Rod • A glass rod is used to manually stir solutions. It can also be used to transfer a single drop of a solution.
250 ml Beaker • Beakers hold solids or liquids that will not release gases when reacted or are unlikely to splatter if stirred or heated. • 250 ml and 100 ml are the most common small beaker sizes; used primarily as the container where chemicals are mixed or stored for later use
Clamps • Device that attaches object to a metal stand
Crucible • Used to hold chemicals. • The crucible is then place on a triangle with a bunsen burner put directly underneath. • Crucibles used for melting heated objects
Triangle • Device placed on top of o-ring. • Object to be heated placed on top of triangle (such as a crucible)
Tongs • Generic (pinch) • Device used to grab objects that might be dangerous to hold with hands • Pictures show a generic (pinch) tong, a crucible tong and a beaker tong • Be able to explain the reason each is shaped different . Beaker Tong
Beaker Tongs • Meant to firmly grip a beaker • Ends do not come together, therefore not able to clamp on to or pick up small objects
Thermometer • A thermometer is used to measure temperatures. It should always be stored in its plastic case to help prevent breakage. • The thermometers used in labs contain alcohol, not mercury
100 ml Graduated Cylinder • A graduated cylinder is used to measure volumes of liquids.
10 ml Graduated Cylinder • A graduated cylinder is used to measure volumes of liquids.
pH (litmus) Paper • Paper that is dipped into a solution to determine whether it is acidic or basic
Rubber or plastic tubing • Used to connect the gas outlet to the Bunsen burner • Used to drain fluids out of a container • Used to transport gas between 2 containers
Bunsen Burner • Methane (CH4) gas is fed into the burner through the gas inlet. • The gas control needle valve controls the rate at which methane enters the burner. • The rate at which air enters the burner is adjusted with the air control vent. • Methane and oxygen mix in the burner tube and, when ignited, produce a flame.
Striker • Strikers are used to start Bunsen burners. The striker itself is constructed with a rough surface positioned opposite to a piece of flint. • When the arm of the striker containing the flint is pushed back and forth over the rough surface sparks are produced. • These sparks when created in the presence of a flammable gas such as natural gas will start a fire or for our purposes a Bunsen burner.
Wire Gauze • Glassware should not be heated with a direct flame. • Wire gauze, when placed between glassware and a heat source, diffuses the heat somewhat and is therefore safer than a direct flame. • Wire gauze works best when the glassware has a flat bottom (e.g., beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks) or partially flat bottom (e.g., Florence flasks).
Ring Stand • Ring stands are used to hold glassware in place during an experimental procedure. • Clamps connect equipment to stand
2-1000 g mass Used to: • measure the mass of an object • to provide a counterweight in an experiment • to act as an object in an experiment. • Come in many shapes and amounts
Distilled Water • Distilled water is made from steam that is cooled and collected. • It is supposed to be free of any salts (minerals). • You use these to rinse off glassware so there are no mineral spots. • It is also used where you want pure water.
Is Drinking Distilled water dangerous? Not really, but prolonged usage will leach vital minerals and vitamins from the body.