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OPPOSITION TO THE Reformation:. Catherine of Aragon and her daughter Mary. Biography: Catherine of Aragon.

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opposition to the reformation


Catherine of Aragon and her daughter Mary

biography catherine of aragon
Biography: Catherine of Aragon
  • After only being able to provide Henry with a single daughter (Mary), Catherine had to go through the process of Henry believing that their marriage was cursed and wanted an annulment granted to him.
  • She was defiant and defended herself thoroughly, but he still married Anne secretly.
  • Until the end of her life, Catherine would refer to herself as Henry's only lawful wedded wife and England's only rightful queen.
biography mary daughter of catherine
Biography: Mary, Daughter of Catherine
  • Only surviving child of Catherine and Henry; disappointed at the lack of a male heir, and eager to re-marry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to her mother annulled.
  • She was not permitted to see her mother, who was sent by Henry to live away from court.
  • Mary was deemed illegitimate. She was styled "The Lady Mary" rather than Princess, and her place in the line of succession was transferred to her half-sister, Elizabeth, Anne's daughter.
motives for their opposition
Motives for their opposition
  • At first, Catherine was kept in the dark about Henry's plans for their annulment and when the news got to Catherine she was very upset. She was also at a great disadvantage since the court that would decide the case was far from impartial. Catherine then appealed directly to the Pope, which she felt would listen to her case since her nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
motives for their opposition1
Motives for their opposition
  • The political and legal debate continued for six years. Catherine was adamant in that she and Arthur, her first husband and Henry's brother, did not consummate their marriage and therefore were not truly husband and wife. Catherine sought not only to retain her position, but also that of her daughter Mary.
motives for their opposition2
Motives for their opposition
  • Mary was determined not to submit to the Reformation because she knew it was a shame for her mother and for herself to accept the new queen and any of her offspring. Both Catherine and Mary knew that if they kept their opposition strong, they would be able to influence the opposition against Henry and Anne and make it stronger: this developed into what is known as the Aragonese faction.
what form of opposition they took
  • Despite humiliation, Catherine launched a campaign to ensure that the Pope would not grant the annulment that Henry wanted
  • Catherine also refused the Pope when he asked her to gracefully enter a nunnery
  • Mary determinedly refused to acknowledge that Anne was the Queen or that Elizabeth was a princess, further enraging the King
how the government dealt with them
How the government dealt with them
  • Clauses inserted requiring the entire population, as required, to swear oaths supporting the new order of succession following the divorce – death was a punishment for those who refused.
  • Such clauses were: The Act of Succession, 1534; The Act in Restraint of Appeals, 1533 (designed to prevent Catherine from challenging any legal decisions made on the Great Matter in England); and the Treason Act, 1534.
how effective was their opposition
How effective was their opposition?
  • It was effective in the sense that Catherine and Mary resisted for such a long time – it delayed the annulment for seven years.
  • However, it was not effective enough – the annulment still took place secretly and still led to the break from Rome.