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FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION CHANGE. There are four factors that affect population change in a country:. BIRTH RATE (people who are born) DEATH RATE (people who die) IMMIGRATION (people that move into the country) EMIGRATION (people who move out of the country)

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there are four factors that affect population change in a country
There are four factors that affect population change in a country:
  • BIRTH RATE (people who are born)
  • DEATH RATE(people who die)
  • IMMIGRATION(people that move into the country)
  • EMIGRATION(people who move out of the country)

These factors are known as ‘vital statistics’ for demographers.

birth rate
Birth Rate
  • The number of live births per 1000 in a year.

Source: http://esa.un.org/wpp/index.htm

birth rates 2008
Birth Rates - 2008


factors influencing birth rates
Factors influencing birth rates
  • The number of women in the total population,
  • Range of ages of female population (15-49),
  • Education levels
    • Societies where women are not treated equally – receive less education = less influence
    • More education = more time in school, job outside of home = fewer children
  • government policies,
    • Population control programs
  • the availability of contraception,
  • Economic status
    • Low income families – have more children to bring more income into the family
    • No money for birth control
  • Medical conditions and general level of health care in country
    • More infant and early childhood deaths
    • Have many children in hopes that some will survive to reach maturity
  • culture & religion
    • Promotion of larger or smaller families
british birth rates on the rise
British Birth Rates on the rise
  • http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/british-birth-rate-leaps-by-18-in-a-decade-9107483.html
new baby boom
New baby boom?
  • http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/01/29/new-baby-boom-how-global-birthrates-could-bounce-back/
death rate
  • The number of deaths per 1000 in a year.

Source: http://esa.un.org/wpp/index.htm

death rates 2009
Death Rates - 2009


factors influencing death rates
Factors influencing death rates
  • Availability of medical services
    • Cost of services
  • Improved sanitation or vaccination programs
  • Education
    • Help maintain their children’s health as well as their own
    • Women in particular (usually the principal caregivers)
  • Availability of food and clean water
  • Level of Economic development
  • War and environmental disasters
  • The country’s fertility rate
    • Large population may increase the general death rates.
    • Child bearing in less developed countries can be dangerous
      • More children a woman has, the greater chance she has of dying
case studies groups of 3 4
Case Studies (Groups of 3-4)
  • 1. A Woman’s Life in Mali (Page 170)
    • What conditions affect the number of children Sow has?
  • 2. Russia’s increasing death rate (Page 172)
    • What changes within Russian society caused the dramatic changes in life expectancy in that country?
  •     The number of people moving into a country.
  • Pull factors-characteristics of a place that attracts people to it.
  • The number of people leaving a country
  • Push Factors-characteristics of a place that causes people to leave.
  • Refugees- people who are forced to leave their country due to war, life-threatening discrimination, famine, or natural disasters.
replacement level
Replacement Level
  • Replacement Level – The number of children required to keep the population of a country constant, not taking migration into consideration.  This is about 2.1 children per female in MDCs and 2.5 children per female in LDCs.
total fertility rate
Total Fertility Rate
  • Total Fertility Rate – The average number of children a woman has in her lifetime in a country.
  • Factors:
    • Religion
    • Culture
    • Social values and economic status

…Tends to be higher in less developed countries. 

rate of natural increase
Rate of Natural Increase
  • Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) – birth rate minus death rate, calculated as a percentage; this does not take migration into consideration
  • RNI (%) =    BR  -  DR
  •                            10
  • (in order to get a % you must divide by 10 because BR and DR are measured per 1000)
doubling population rule
Doubling Population Rule
  • Doubling Time – The time in years needed for a population to double its size assuming the growth rate remains the same.
  • DT (years) =    70__
  •                         RNI
infant mortality rate 1year
Infant Mortality Rate (<1year)
  • based upon the number of live births that do not reach their first birthday (per 1000 births)
  • Underlying cause of about half of infant deaths
    • Malnutrition
child mortality rate 1 5 years
Child Mortality Rate (1-5 years)
  • based upon the number of children that die between their 1st and 5th birthdays (per 1000 births)