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Pig Flow. VDPAM 310 Introduction to Production Medicine Swine Topics Lecture 1. Dr. Locke Karriker, DVM, MS R.B. Baker, DVM, MS Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

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Pig Flow


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    1. Pig Flow VDPAM 310 Introduction to Production MedicineSwine Topics Lecture 1 Dr. Locke Karriker, DVM, MS R.B. Baker, DVM, MS Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine

    2. The Evolution of Pig Farming • Pre 1950 • Small subsistence herds < 10 sows • 1950 to 1970 • “Mortgage lifter” +/- 100 sows • Outdoor continuous flow farrow to finish • Selling or growing feeder pigs – “on dirt” • Pigs were produced in batches in mid west • Produced continuously in the south

    3. Industry Structure: Historical Perspectives • Before 1980 • high zoonosis potential • Interface with wildlife and other domestic species • Low productivity/efficiency • >8 million sows producing <100 million pigs • < 12 pigs per sow per year • Different set of disease agents • More chronic diseases/syndromes • Higher suckling pig mortality • Little genetic improvement • Pigs were fat • >3.5 pounds of feed per pound of gain • Slow growth rates

    4. SOW FARM / BREEDING HERD

    5. Historical Industry Perspectives • After the late 1970’s • Margins and Efficiencies drove the industry • Feed costs • Very low – corn hybrids and productive years • Biological potential of the pig realized • Repetitive reproductive potential • Almost amazing growth potential • 3 to 300# in six months • Value created per pig • $30/pig margins • Disease impact was highly variable during the period

    6. Historical Industry Perspectives • Visionaries of the Day • Producers • Wendell Murphy, Bill Prestage, and others • Breeding Stock • Roy Pogue, Ken Woolley, and others • Processors • Joseph W. Luter III • Wall Street Investment Bankers • Brand Marketers • Hormel etc. • First Integrators • Premium Standard Farms

    7. Historical Industry Perspectives • Biosecurity Development • Before 1980 there was little • SPF and some genetic companies • Derived from observation - intuition • Types of Biosecurity • Internal • External • Last 5 years more science based

    8. Pigs and Facilities Fw N Fn B&G Sows Pigs Pigs Market Age Groups • Breeding and Gestation- Sows / Boars – (Adults) • Farrowing / lactation- Piglets & Sows for 3 wks • Nursery- Pigs 7 wks • Finisher- Pigs 18 - 22 wks

    9. Pig flow systems Basic concepts of pig movement

    10. Pig Facility Development • 1975 to 1985 • Change to total confinement • Improved welfare for people and pigs • Continuous flow (high disease burden) • 1985 to 1995 • Change to All-In, All-Out in all production stages • Multisite production • This design eliminated many diseases • Barn sizes based on the slaughter haul truck • Economies of scale and biologic efficiencies were realized

    11. Variety Different sizes and types

    12. British Radial Production

    13. Single Site: Continuous Flow

    14. Basic Pig Flow Phase Review

    15. PROCESSBEGINS SOW UNIT BREEDING & GESTATION DEPARTMENT

    16. PHASE 1 SOW UNIT FARROWING DEPARTMENT

    17. PHASE 2 NURSERY

    18. PHASE 3 FINISHING

    19. Basic Pig Flow Sow Unit  Market

    20. M A R K E T Basic Flow Finisher 1 Fat Hogs Fats 220 – 290 lbs Sow Unit Isoweans Nursery FeederPigs Weaners 8 – 15 lbs M A R K E T 35 – 75 lbs Finisher 2 Finishers MarketHogs 220 – 290 lbs

    21. Market Pigs Market Pigs Fat hogs / Fats Fat hogs / Fats Finishers Finishers The BIG Picture Market Pigs Fat hogs / Fats Finishers

    22. Production Systems Single, Two, Threeand Four? Site Systems

    23. Single Site

    24. Single Site: All-in, All-out

    25. Site 2 Site 1 Two Site(Option A) Site 2 Site 1

    26. Site 1 Site 2 Two Site(Option B) Site 1 Site 2

    27. Multisite: Nursery

    28. Site 2 Site 1 Site 3 Three Site Site 2 Site 1 Site 3

    29. Two Site 3’s Three or Four Site? Site 2 Site 1 X Site 3 Site 4? Site 3 Two Site 3’s

    30. Multisite: B/G/F

    31. Group/Cohort Origin Single vs. Multiple Source

    32. AGE SEGREGATED REARINGSummary • All In – All Out production • The most significant change in production practices over the past 100 years. • One age group per room or building • Limits disease spread • Reduces and slows the horizontal transmission cycle • Much Better at meeting the pig’s needs • Feed optimized for each age • Temperature optimized • Space and water delivery optimized • Improved vaccine efficacy • Etc.

    33. Modern pig farm • The female population is divided into ~20 by-week groups of pregnant sows/gilts • Farrow a different group each week • Replacements are added to each group-week • 3 to 4 weeks lactation • 1 week breeding • 15 weeks gestation • Ideal total time from wean to wean is 19 weeks • Each female would ideally/potentially farrow 2.74 times/year

    34. Nursery Nursery Nursery Nursery Single Sow Sources Four Nursery SitesEach Site has a Single Sow Source