 Download Download Presentation The Handshake Problem

# The Handshake Problem

Download Presentation ## The Handshake Problem

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. The Handshake Problem

2. The Handshake Problem • n people are in a room • Each person shakes hands with each other person exactly once. • How many handshakes will take place?

3. Example: n = 5

4. Example: n = 5

5. Person 1 shakes hands with the other four and leaves. Running Total: 4

6. Person 1 shakes hands with the other four and leaves. Running Total: 4

7. Person 2 shakes hands with the other three and leaves. Running Total: 4 + 3

8. Person 2 shakes hands with the other three and leaves. Running Total: 4 + 3

9. Person 3 shakes hands with the other two and leaves. Running Total: 4 + 3 + 2

10. Person 3 shakes hands with the other two and leaves. Running Total: 4 + 3 + 2

11. Person 4 shakes hands with the other one and leaves. Running Total: 4 + 3 + 2 + 1

12. Person 5 has no one left to shake with. Running Total: 4 + 3 + 2 + 1

13. Person 5 has no one left to shake with. Running Total: 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10

14. So when n = 5, it takes 1+2+3+4 handshakes • In general, it takes 1+2+3+ … + (n-1) handshakes. • Ex: If there were 10 people, there would be 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 45 handshakes.

15. Let’s count the handshakes another way. • Count each hand in a handshake as a “half-handshake”. • Two half-handshakes make a whole handshake.

16. When n = 5 Each person has to shake hands with the other four. So each person contributes 4 half-handshakes. Since there are 5 people, this is a total of 5 ⋅ 4 = 20 half handshakes, or 10 whole handshakes.

17. So for a general n, the total number of handshakes is n(n-1)∕2. Ex: if n = 10, the number of handshakes is

18. If n = 50, then the number of handshakes is This is much easier than adding up 1+ 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + 49

19. By counting in two different ways, we determined that the number of handshakes is both 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1) and n(n-1)/2 Since these formulas count the same things, we have established the identity 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1) = n(n-1)/2

20. Let f(n) = 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1). We’ve seen that

21. Let f(n) = 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1). We’ve seen that To get a function for 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + n, we replace each n with n+1

22. The formula 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1) + n = n(n+1)/2 Was discovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss when he was a student in primary school.

23. Gauss’s teacher wanted to keep Gauss busy, so he gave him the assignment of adding all the numbers from 1 to 100. Gauss produced the correct answer in a matter of seconds. His teacher was impressed. And annoyed.

24. Gauss realized that it is easy to add up all the numbers twice. 1 + 2 + 3 + ⋅⋅⋅ + 99 + 100 100 + 99 + 98 + ⋅⋅⋅ + 2 + 1 101 + 101 + 101 + ⋅⋅⋅ + 101 + 101 =101(100). Dividing this by 2 gives a sum of 101⋅ 50=5050

25. We can do the same trick for any n: 1 + 2 + ⋅⋅⋅ + (n-1) + n n + (n-1) + ⋅⋅⋅ + 2 + 1 n+1 + n+1 + ⋅⋅⋅ + n+1 + n+1 = (n+1)n So 1 + ⋅⋅⋅ + n = (n+1)n/2