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RAIL IN OTHER JURISDICTIONS. By Harry Gow. GREENER PASTURES. « The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence » We wish we had railways « like those in Europe » European and Japanese railways are often held up as examples in modernity and excellence

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Greener pastures l.jpg
GREENER PASTURES

  • « The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence »

  • We wish we had railways « like those in Europe »

  • European and Japanese railways are often held up as examples in modernity and excellence

  • Are our railways under-equipped and ineffective?

  • How do we stack up?


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OTHER JURISDICTIONS

  • Reference will be had to railways in:

  • Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere.

  • Sources include:

  • Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer (UIC)

  • Railway Association of Canada (RAC)

  • Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (UIC)

  • American Association of Railroads (AAR)

  • Trade Journals

  • Personal observation

  • Other


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INTERNATIONAL DATA:RAILWAYS:

Passenger millions km, Freight million tonne/km

  • Europe: Pass 575,326 Frt 1,861,023

  • N. America: Pass 10,740 Frt 2,465,236

  • Canada: Pass 1,564 Frt 220,000 RAC

  • Australia: Pass 1,350 Frt. 38,525

  • World: Pass. 1,906,597 Frt. 7,471,720

    Source: UIC 2001

    Proportions of passenger to freight vary greatly!


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RAILWAY MODAL SHAREPASSENGER AND FREIGHT

  • Europe (EU) passenger: 7% of passenger km

  • USA passenger: 0.6 % of passenger km

  • Europe freight: 15% of tonne km

  • USA freight: 40.4 % of tonne km

    (UIC 2001)


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AUSTRALIAMODAL SHARES

  • Rail freight tonne km: 137,700 million (appr. 33%)

  • Allfreight tonne km: 374,000 million

  • Passenger rail km: 548 850 million (% not avail.)

  • (Est. Greenhouse gas emissions of Aus. Rail 0.3% of total Australian gg emissions )

  • Discussion: How do we explain this last percentage?

    Note discrepancies with UIC figures!

    • Source Australian Transport Statistics 2003


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Freight Revenue tonmiles

- 220 billion in 2001

221 billion in 2000

(32% non-bulk)

Passenger km

4,11 million pass

in 2001; for

1,564.1 million pass km

- 4.07 million pass

in 2000; for

1,478.8 million pass km

CANADARAIL


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ANALYSIS OTHER JURISDICTIONS

IMPORTANCE OF RAIL MODE

  • In Europe: Rail Passenger greater

    Rail freight less

  • In USA, Australia and Canada

    Rail passenger less

    Rail freight greater


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JAPAN, RUSSIA & CHINA

  • Pass million km Frt million ton- km

    Japan: 240,658 21,800

    Russia: 125,834 1,249,166

    China: 463,655 1,424,980

    ____________________ (Source UIC 2001)

    Note: Proportionally Japan shows a « European » profile:high rail passenger, low freight,

    Russia & China similar


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INVESTMENTSPOLL OF CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

Australia: Aus. Track Corp, 15 m USD

BHP Iron Ore 35.86 m USD

Queensland Railways m 301.17 USD

83.80 m USD for passenger coaches by QR

Canada: CPR 453.64 m USD

VIA RAIL: 80.31 m USD

25.16 m USD for pass. Coaches by VIA + 12.05 mUSD refurb (Source IRJ 2001)


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POLL (Continued)

France: SNCF 951.54 m USD au total

(Coaches 300 m USD)

RFF 1,329.04 m USD

Switzerland:

CFF 1,528.59 USD

USA: BNSF 1,650 m USD

UP 1,600 m USD

(Source IRJ)


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RAIL NETWORK LENGTH VS INVESTMENT IN RAIL INFRASTR.

  • NAFTA 23 % of world network length

    14 % of world investment

  • European Union 15 % of length

    43 % of investment

  • China 6 % of length

    17 % of investment

    (Source IRJ: length, World Bank; - investment, DVB)


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North America and Australia

Lower investment per

km of track

Lower investment in coaches

Total amounts for

infrastructure still large

Competitive advantage slipping

Road « investments »!

European Union + China

XX + investment for length

Part of explanation

proportions of freight

vs. Passenger

Part of explanation role of state.

Subsidies to roads vary

SOME GENERALIZATIONS


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FUEL CONSUMPTION BY RAIL

  • In Canada Revenue Ton Km per litre of fuel

    jumped 26.4 % from 133 RTK per l in 1992 to

    168 RTK per l in 2001, - Upgraded loco fleet

    & train handling; (RAC 2002)

  • Result is less GGE gaseous emissions.

  • Rail freight typically consumes less fuel than

    road freight: ratio 1 to 3 or 1 to 4 (AAR)


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ENERGY USE BY RAIL –EUROPE, RUSSIA & CHINA

  • Increasing electrification (now from Gasgow to Vladivostock - in 2003)

  • Sources multiple: Swiss hydro, French nuclear, Russian both, China coal & hydro, (Denmark some wind!)

  • Transborder freight diesels increasing

  • High speed (electric) rail very energy efficient

    replacing airlines: Paris-Brussels, Paris-Lyon-Marseille, Germany, Spain, Italy, US, Japan

  • Local transport: Tram-trains (el., some deisel)


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GLOBALISATION OF RAILWAYS

  • First railways used British technology, then developed specialized national systems

    • High costs for systems esp. vehicles

    • Transborder difficulties, tech., customs, et c

      especially for freight in Europe

    • Technical obsolecence, conservatism

    • Road mode more internationalised


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GLOBALIZATION

  • Rise of international markets and suppliers:

    ex. Bombardier in China, GM in England, et c

  • The appearance of techniques in new countries

  • (Seimans signals in Edmonton etc, Indusi - OC

  • International operators, ex. WC–CN in the UK

  • Harmonisation between countries

  • More technology transfers


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IMPACT OF TRENDS ON GGEEXAMPLES

  • Higher norms may apply on a wider area

    • Canadian GM locos in Europe more powerful and efficient, help attract freight from road

    • Bombardier and Alstom world leaders in energy-efficient rolling stock; Acela their electric Euro train in USA replacing air trips Boston – New York - Washington

    • Modern signalling and control systems can eliminate waste of energy, idling

    • Use of European vehicles implies tougher emission standards ex. Talent BR 643 meet Euro 2 standards


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POENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENTEUROPE

  • Further reduction of border effects NA style double-stack on dedicated frt. Lines

  • More tunnels through mountains, under straits

  • Harmonization and spread of Euro standards

  • Linking-up of national HSR networks e g

    France-Spain, France-CH-Germany-Italy-Benelux

  • Tram-train on wider basis incl. transborder

  • European signalling systems

  • Efficiencies from common providors of equipment


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POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENTAUSTRALIA

  • Continue unification of network – stqndard gauge

  • Extension of network – Alice Springs- Darwin now connected (Sept. 2003) First frt Jan. 2004, first pass. Feb. 2004 –

  • Lift more clearances for double stacked containers

  • Infill electrification – Melbourne, Sydney, Queensland

  • Improve Sydney – Darwin; line configuration, passing loops

  • More unified freight network

  • New generation diesels

  • Greater use of rail for transit: Vic, WA, SA, Qld

  • Wider use of tilting passenger trains (QR)

  • More continuous investment by feds

  • Favours access to local services and business

  • Fosters local development


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POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENTContinue new line construction and electrification (China)Electrification of now diesel lines (Russia)Improve links with EU and future EU country networks; gauge changers (5ft – 4’8 ½’’)Improve links to Central Asian countries and ultimately southern tier countries Enhance transcontinental container haulageIntroduce European innovations such as tram-train


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POTENTIAL : CANADA

  • Further improvement to investment régime

  • Continued taxation reforms

  • State incentives for investment in green rail

    initiatives- ex. Green Goat et c

  • Federal and provincial investment in transit and inter-city passenger, capacity imrovement, HSR

  • Adoption of European techology such as

    low-emission diesl light rail on a wider basis

  • TEA (USA) – type intermodal investment prog.


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RAIL IN OTHER JURISDICTIONSSUMMARY

  • European and Asian railways have a strong share of passengers

  • North American and Australian railways do better with freight than do the Euros

  • We can learn from other jurisdictions:

    Technology, legislation, financing, emissions reductions, power sources


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OTHWER JURISDICTIONSLESSONS

  • Rail contributes little GES per ton-km,

  • More emissions reductions are accomplished by improving rail systems

  • We do surprisingly well here compared to others

  • Our problem is that we are often satisfied with that

  • Other cultures may value clean air more than does ours (Denmark, Switzerland) & act on it -> Rail

  • Distance is not a barrier to improved passenger rail (viz. European HSR runs of over 1000 km)

  • Population density is also a false criterion (Australia)


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ACTIONHERE

  • 1. Take global warming seriously

  • 2. Learn from the world(Acela, GM et al)

  • 3. Think globally, act locally (Ottawa & …)


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