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Learning & Teaching Conference 2010. Enhancing learning through engaging academics as digital innovators Diana Laurillard, London Knowledge Lab. Why is e -learning innovation so slow? Why might we need learning technologies? Realising their potential for learning and productivity

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outline

Why is e-learning innovation so slow?

Why might we need learning technologies?

Realising their potential for learning and productivity

Making e-learning strategies work for academics

Planning the way forward

Outline

www.lkl.ac.uk

5 reasons why technology innovation is slow in education
5 reasons why technology innovation is slow in education

Digital technologies are too new, and they do everything

Education is a complex system of powerful, stable drivers, which do not embrace technology

Education leaders are not comfortable with technology as a component of strategy

Education is national, political, public service - not so subject to market forces, or investment in innovation

Lecturers have neither the motivation nor the means to innovate using technology

[Laurillard, in Opening Up Education, 2008, MIT Press]

slide4

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

New media and delivery technologies for education – Recent history

Interactive computers

Local drives & discs

WIMP interfaces

Internet

Multimedia

Worldwide Web

Laptops

Email

Search engines

Broadband

3G mobiles

Blogs

Wikis

  • - new medium for articulating ideas
  • - local storage with the user
  • - devices for ease of access to content
  • - mass production / distribution of content
  • - elaborated forms of content
  • - wide access to extensive content
  • - personal portable access to the medium
  • - mass delivery of messages
  • - easier access to extensive content
  • - rich content / immediate communication
  • - low-cost access to elaborate content
  • personal mass publishing
  • collections of knowledge
slide5

Old media and delivery technologies for education– Not so recent history

0

1400s

1600s

1400s

1800s

1900s

1500s

1800s

1900s

1940s

1950s

1700s

1800s

Writing

Paper

Indexes, paragraphs

Printing

Photos, sound, film

Libraries

Published books

Postal services

Bibliographies

Television, phones

Paperbacks

Pamphlets

Encyclopedias

  • - new medium for articulating ideas
  • - local storage with the user
  • - devices for ease of access to content
  • - mass production / distribution of content
  • - elaborated forms of content
  • - wide access to extensive content
  • - personal portable access to the medium
  • - mass delivery of messages
  • - easier access to extensive content
  • - rich content / immediate communication
  • - low-cost access to elaborate content
  • personal mass publishing
  • collections of knowledge
slide6

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

Old media and delivery technologies against the new

0

1400s

1600s

1400s

1800s

1900s

1500s

1800s

1900s

1940s

1950s

1700s

1800s

Writing

Paper

Indexes, paragraphs

Printing

Photos, sound, film

Libraries

Published books

Postal services

Bibliographies

Television, phones

Paperbacks

Pamphlets

Encyclopedias

Interactive computers

Local drives & discs

WIMP interfaces

Internet

Multimedia

Worldwide Web

Laptops

Email

Search engines

Broadband

3G mobiles

Blogs

Wikis

slide7

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

Interactive computers

Local drives & discs

WIMP interfaces

Old media and delivery technologies against the new

0

1400s

1400s

1500s

1600s

1700s

1800s

1800s

1900s

1900s

1940s

1940s

1950s

2000s

Writing

Paper

Printing

Published books

Indexes, paragraphs

Pamphlets

Photos, sound, film

Postal services

Encyclopedias

Libraries

Bibliographies

Television, phones

Paperbacks

Interactive computers

Local drives & discs

WIMP interfaces

Internet

Multimedia

Worldwide Web

Laptops

Email

Search engines

Broadband

3G mobiles

Blogs

Wikis

30 years

5 reasons why technology innovation is slow in education1
5 reasons why technology innovation is slow in education

Digital technologies are too new, and they do everything

Education is a complex system of powerful, stable drivers, which do not embrace technology

Education leaders are not comfortable with technology as a component of strategy

Education is national, political, public service - not so subject to market forces, or investment in innovation

Lecturers have neither the motivation nor the means to innovate using digital technologies

[Laurillard, in Opening Up Education, 2008, MIT Press]

why might we need digital technologies for learning and teaching
Why might we need digital technologies for learning and teaching?

Not clear? Student preference – yes.

New strategic aims for university teaching

Independent learning; collaborative learning; 21C skills

Flexibility; wider reach; better use of teacher and learner time

  • Student demand
  • Strategic fit
  • Learning value
  • Productivity value

“The key picture that emerges is that students are appropriating technologies to meet their own personal, individual needs – mixing use of general ICT tools and resources, with official course or institutional tools and resources”

[Student experiences of TEL Report, JISC, 2006]

strategic fit
Strategic fit

How are other HEIs doing?

“Strategies are becoming much more embedded, with the biggest change since 2005 being the rise to prominence of e-learning strategies”. [UCISA Survey, 2008]

“Few examples of universities responding strategically, either at the level of rethinking knowledge practices in the curriculum, or at the level of integrating support for students’ digital literacies”. [Learning Literacies in a Digital Age project, 2009]

strategic fit to imperial
Strategic fit – to Imperial
  • Support progression for students with diverse needs
  • Enhance the profile of teaching and CPD
  • Enhance links between research and teaching
  • provide adaptive remedial tutoring, e.g.Maths, English
  • e-portfolios to critique and track progress
  • build online communities of practice
  • treat teaching as ‘engineering’, a ‘design science’
  • provide online access to authentic tasks and data
  • use online collaboration for learners to build communities of practice
learning value
Learning value
  • Digital skills for work and life
  • Independent learning
  • Collaborative learning

Networking and information skills, data handling, online communication, content generation, design,presentation

- For academic purposes, translating to work environments

Redesigning the university for the twenty first century

Web 2.0 provides HE with the opportunities

‘renegotiating the relationship between tutor and student…

‘each recognises and values the other’s expertise and capability’

‘drawing students into the development of approaches to teaching and learning’ (JISC 2009)

Adaptive models and simulations with feedback on actions

Formative e-assessment with feedback on performance

Online tools to structure students’ independent study

Online tools for discussion and sharing outputs

Interactive simulations and modelling tools

E-portfolios for sharing and improving practice

web based tools
Web-based tools

http://www.conceptlinkage.org/#demo

comparing pedagogic value
Comparing pedagogic value
  • Tutorial with 5 and 10 students
  • Students spend more time listening than speaking
  • Ratio worsens as group size increases
  • Online tutorial with 5 and 10 students
  • Students spend more time writing than reading
  • Ratio only slightly worse as group size increases
e portfolios blogs for collaboration
E-Portfolios, Blogs, for collaboration

Impact of ‘e’ - Students can share, comment, adapt, improve

achieving learning value
Achieving learning value
  • Improvements in the quality of learning, and in student achievement are possible, but only if carefully designed
  • Exploit the technology for its ability to promote active, personalised learning
    • Structure students’ independent collaborative work
    • Provide access to authentic tasks
    • Support adaptive and remedial tutoring
    • Support independent formative assessment
productivity value
Productivity value
  • Better use of learner time
  • Better use of teacher time

http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/

Support learners in their independent study

Mix face-to-face with online to achieve best fit to need

Provide access to authentic tasks

Automated formative assessment helps self-regulation

Modelling with differential equations: oscillations

Create once – use many times

Work at scale with same quality

Encourage peer learning support

Build on and re-use others’ teaching designs (OER)

a learning design support environment ldse lkl project
A Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE) – LKL project

Build on the work of others – find relevant designs and patterns

Compare alternative models of T & L

Explain the rationale for a learning design

Edit and trial the learning design

http://www.tlrp.org/tel/ldse/

modelling costs and benefits
Modelling costs and benefits

Conventional model, classroom based

Model returns effect of design on ‘type of learning’ elicited, ‘learning experience’, ‘teacher time’, and ‘learner time in class’

T-L activities

Blended model, real and virtual, local and global

[Laurillard 2006]

Model

staging the development
Staging the development

www.lkl.ac.uk/ltu

Web presence

VodCasts

Online discussion forums

Web-based inquiry tools

Online structured discussion groups

e-Portfolios

Interactive formative assessment

Collaborative simulations

  • Build on local knowledge, experience, and ideas
  • Adapt and build on what has gone before
  • Start with the simplest models with the best returns
staging the development1
Staging the development
  • Increasing pedagogic value correlates with worsening learning time
  • Teaching time needed is related to student numbers and ‘contact’ time

Model

staging the development2
Staging the development
  • Suggests best place to start is interactive formative assessment
  • Different orderings would be needed to prioritise pedagogic value

or teacher preparation time

achieving productivity value
Achieving productivity value
  • Improvements in the productivity of learning and teaching are possible, but only if carefully managed
  • Exploit the technology for its ability to make better use of staff and student time
    • More peer-group feedback and collaboration
    • More online support for independent learning
    • Building on the work of others – re-use and sharing
e learning strategy objectives extract
E-Learning Strategy Objectives (extract)
  • monitor external and emerging developments in e-learning, with a mind to their incorporation into College programmes and educational initiatives
  • identify examples and replicable models of effective e-learning by evaluating practice in learning, teaching and assessment
  • monitor, share and co-ordinate where sensible e-learning developments across the College

…‘building on the work of others’…

e learning strategy a vision
E-Learning Strategy – a vision?

Giving academics the means to innovate with digital technologies:

  • treat teaching as a design science, more like engineering
  • expect it to be a continual iterative process of improvement
  • use good pedagogy to challenge the use of technology
  • don’t expect proof that e-learning is more effective than book learning, or any one method is better than any other – the point is to optimise
  • enable academics to emulate the research model by building on each others’ work to: find, adopt, critique, adapt, test, redesign, publish
e learning at imperial roles
E-Learning at Imperial - roles

Educational Development Unit

ICT E-Learning Services

developing the capability for e learning
Developing the capability for e-learning

SEC

E-LSC

E-LSC

FTCs

Academics

  • Use technology for most difficult strategic aims
  • Modelling the benefits and costs of time
  • The means to build on others’ work
  • Treat teaching as a form of engineering
  • ExploitITfor active, collaborative learning
summary

Begin with ambitions, use technology to achieve them

Build on the work of others: share ideas, designs and tools

Plan to achieve both learning and productivity benefits

Make teaching more like design research: a learning process

Give academics the means for exploring new pedagogies

 academics as digital innovators, treating teaching as a design science

Summary