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Class Notes 17.3b (NB p. 27) Describe significant events and outcomes of each of the following. 1. Battle of Fredericksburg – 2. Battle of Chancellorsville – 3. Battle of Gettysburg – 4. Pickett's Charge – 5. Siege of Vicksburg – 6. Sherman’s March – 7. Grant and Lee at Petersburg – 8. Lee and Grant meet at Appomattox – Skip three lines between each event.
CHAPTER 17: THE TIDE OF WAR TURNSSection 3: The North Wins Today we will trace the war from Gettysburg to Appomattox.
Vocabulary • inaugural address – speech given by a newly-elected president • platform – statement of what a political party stands for • malice – hatred or hard feelings
Check for Understanding • What are going to do today? • Who gives an inaugural address? • Why doesn’t Mr. Thomas feel malice toward you?
What We Already Know Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg made Confederate hopes for victory seem unlikely.
What We Already Know Before Vicksburg fell in July 1863, nearly all the major battles of the Civil War had been fought in Virginia or Tennessee, leaving the Deep South untouched by war.
What We Already Know Because of his successes in the Western Theater, especially at the Siege of Vicksburg, Ulysses S. Grant was appointed commander of the Union armies by President Lincoln.
Sherman’s Total War • September 1864 – Sherman took Atlanta, then set out on a march to the sea, cutting a path of destruction up to 60 miles wide and 300 miles long through Georgia. • Total war: not only against enemy troops, but against everything that supports the enemy
Sherman’s Total War His troops tore up rail lines, destroyed crops, and burned and looted towns.
Despite a desperate defense led by Confederate general Joe Johnston, the city of Atlanta finally fell to Sherman’s siege. Sherman’s triumph in Atlanta would be especially important for President Lincoln.
Who was William Tecumseh Sherman? • Confederate general • Led troops on the “March to the Sea” • Replaced Grant after Vicksburg • Captured Atlanta • Waged total war against civilians Choose all that describe Sherman!
37. How did General William T. Sherman wage total war against the South during his March to the Sea? Choose all that are true!
37. How did General William T. Sherman wage total war against the South during his March to the Sea? • His men lived off the land, taking anything they wanted from Confederate civilians' homes. • He burned farms and towns, and destroyed Southern railroads wherever he went. • He laid siege to Petersburg, but failed to take it. • He captured cities like Atlanta and Savannah. • He set up new governments in defeated Confederate cities. Choose all that are true!
Lincoln’s Re-election • In 1864, the president was running for reelection, but many Northerners were tired of war. • Democrats nominated George McClellan, who ran on an antiwar platform.
Lincoln’s Re-election • Because of Sherman’s successful march through the South, Northerners could sense a Union victory could become a reality. • Lincoln won with 55 percent of the popular vote in the November election.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Lincoln hoped for a speedy end to the war, and in his speech, he spoke of his desire for the nation to make it easier for the South to surrender and return to the Union.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address “With malice towards none; with charity for all; . . . let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; . . . to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace.”
38. Why were Sherman’s victories important for Lincoln? • They ended Lee's second invasion of the North. • They ended Southern hopes of European diplomatic recognition and foreign aid. • They proved that Sherman was the general Lincoln needed. • They helped him win reelection in 1864.
39. In his Second Inaugural Address, what message did Lincoln send about the next task facing the nation?
39. In his Second Inaugural Address, what message did Lincoln send about the next task facing the nation? • He called on the nation to utterly destroy the Southern economy. • He called on the nation to finish the war and forgive the South for causing it. • He called on the nation to make the Southern states pay for their decision to secede. • He called on the nation to make all the sacrifices necessary to win the war.
Grant’s Virginia Campaign Since May 1864, Grant and his generals had been fighting battle after battle, all the while moving south toward Richmond.
Grant’s Virginia Campaign • In the Battle of the Wilderness (May, 1864) Union and Confederate forces fought in a tangle of trees and brush so thick that they could barely see each other. • Fire broke out during the battle, and some of the wounded burned to death. • Grant lost over 17,000 men, but pushed on.
Grant’s Virginia Campaign Grant’s strategy involved pressing Lee without letting up, forcing him to use up men and supplies. At the Battle of Cold Harbor (June, 1864), the union lost 7,000 casualties, most in the first few minutes of battle.
Grant’s Virginia Campaign • Grant’s forces continued to press on toward Richmond, with Lee’s troops trying to retreat as slowly as possible. • But while Grant could always call for fresh supplies and reinforcements, every skirmish weakened Lee’s ability to continue fighting.
Petersburg (June, 1864) • Unable to break through the rebel defenses, the Union forces dug trenches and settled in for a ten-month siege at Petersburg, outside Richmond. • With Grant tightening his noose around Richmond, Lee pulled out eventually, and the city fell on April 3, 1865.
Surrender at Appomattox • Lee wanted to keep fighting, but he knew that his situation was hopeless. • He sent a message to General Grant that he was ready to surrender.
Surrender at Appomattox On April 9, 1865, Lee and Grant met in the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange the surrender.
Surrender at Appomattox • Grant offered generous terms of surrender. • After giving up their arms, Lee’s men could return home with their private possessions and horses.
Surrender at Appomattox • Grant gave food to the Confederate soldiers. • After four long years, the Civil War was coming to a close.
40. How did Grant force Lee to surrender? • He cut off all of Lee’s possible routes of retreat from Antietam. • He surrounded Lee at Vicksburg. • He relentlessly attacked Lee's forces without letting up. • He threatened to execute Confederate prisoners of war.
41. How did Grant treat Confederate soldiers after the surrender at Appomattox Court House? Choose all that are true!
41. How did Grant treat Confederate soldiers after the surrender at Appomattox Court House? • He held Confederate officers as prisoners of war. • He provided the rebel troops with food. • He allowed Lee's men to keep their mules and horses. • He let the Confederate troops return to their homes. • He exchanged them for Union soldiers captured by other Confederate forces. Choose all that are true!