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Stains, Stains, Go Away…

Stains, Stains, Go Away…

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Stains, Stains, Go Away…

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  1. Stains, Stains, Go Away… By: Htay Paw, Susan Winter and Kristen Allen S

  2. 2 Types of Many Common Stains Oil based stain • Comes from plants or animals • Car or motor oil • Hand/suntan lotions • Butter • Bacon • Cooking oils • Ointments • Salad dressings Protein based stain • Blood • Dairy products • Bodily soils • Baby formula • Baby food • Mud • Eggs (Tibbits, n.d.) K

  3. Why Laundry Detergent? • Improved cleanliness • Encourages good health • Informed choices H

  4. Why consumers choose the brands they do… • Cost/budget $$ • Health/skin allergies • Tradition and comfort • Environmental impact S

  5. Products Used • Vegetable Oil • Turmeric Powder • Baby Food Carrots • Wisk liquid • Tide liquid • Arm & Hammer liquid • 100% White Cotton fabric K

  6. Stains we used Mixture • Protein based • Carrots and water • 100% Soybean Oil based • Plant based • Plant from Ginger family • Cooking spice • Medicinal use H

  7. Wisk Before liquid detergents, pre-treatments consisted of making pastes out of powder detergents Launched in 1956 as 1st liquid laundry detergent and ultimate stain fighter 1968, “Ring Around the Collar” Campaign 2012, Wisk introduced newest breakthrough in cleaning – “Deep Clean” (Wisk, n.d.) S

  8. Tide • Debuted in 1946 • First heavy-duty synthetic detergent • Result of years of research in search of replacing traditional soaps • Remains the #1 selling laundry detergent in the U.S. market every year since its launch in 1946 (Tide, n.d.) H

  9. Arm & Hammer • Arm & Hammer, division of Church & Dwight, has been around for more than 165 years • Very committed to environment and served as the 1st corporate sponsor of Earth Day in 1970 • Supplied baking soda that was used to clean Statue of Liberty for its 100th anniversary in 1986 (Arm & Hammer Ingredients, 2010) • 1982, first liquid laundry detergent for Arm & Hammer • 2006, 2x concentration liquid • 2011, Sensitive Skin liquid laundry detergent (Olivia, 2013) K

  10. Inquiry 1 Question: Which brand of detergent will get the vegetable oil and Turmeric Powder mixture out completely compared to the original swatch of cotton fabric? K

  11. Claim: Tide Detergent K

  12. Inquiry 1 Variable: Cold Water Process Overview: • Scrubbed 5 drops of Termuric/Vegetable Oil mixture into cotton swatch • Dried using hairdryer for 5 minutes to help set stain • Pre-treated: Using ½ tsp. of laundry detergent , scrubbed onto stain then rinsed in bowl of cold water for 5 minutes • Dried with hairdryer and compared to other swatches • Washed each cotton swatch at home in cold water to complete washing process • Completed process 3 times total, once for each detergent S

  13. Observations • Arm & Hammer turned stain reddish/orange on contact • Pre-treating: Wisk removed stain the most • After laundering in washer, Wisk swatch was the cleanest of all three detergents used Arm & Hammer Results Wisk H

  14. Scientific Concepts Chemical Reaction: • Turmeric has a pigment known as xanthophylls that lends the yellow color to it. • Turmeric also has a pigment know as carotene that is reddish orange in color. • Turmeric turns red when it is combined with any base liquid like soap, but it turns yellow when it comes into contact with any substance that is an acid. (“Every Day Chemistry - Why Does,” n.d.). • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Olezbt9cxfo(K Class Science Channel, n.d.). H

  15. Concepts continued Surfactant: • Is a compound that lowers surface tension of a liquid, increasing contact between liquid and another substance. • A molecule that contains a polar portion and a non polar portion is called a surface active agent or surfactant. • A surfactant can interact with both polar and non polar molecules. • A surfactant increases the solubility of the otherwise insoluble substances. • In water, surfactant molecules tend to cluster into a spherical geometry non polar ends on the inside of the sphere polar ends on the outside. These clusters are called micelles. (“Surfactant”, n.d.) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdKlyofu0Xw (MWVevotherm, n.d.). H

  16. Inquiry 2 Question: How does the change in water temperature used affect the removal of the stain? Claim: The hotter the water used, the more the stain will be removed compared to the original swatch of fabric H

  17. Inquiry 2 Variable: Hot Water Process Overview: • Scrubbed 5 drops of Termuric/Vegetable Oil mixture into cotton swatch • Dried using hairdryer for 5 minutes to help set stain • Pre-treated: Using ½ tsp. of laundry detergent , scrubbed onto stain then rinsed in bowl of hot water for 5 minutes • Dried with hairdryer and compared to other swatches • Washed each cotton swatch at home in hot water to complete washing process • Completed process 3 times total, once for each detergent Tide K

  18. Observations • Hotter water isn’t always better • Tide didn’t remove the stain as well as Wisk even though hotter water was used with it S

  19. Scientific Concepts Water Temperature Change: • Stain removal is the dissolving (loosening) of a stain and then washing it off the fabric. Either cold or hot water serves as the solvent. • Hot water works much better with some stains as the molecules are moving around faster than they would be if the water was cold. • Faster moving molecules are better at removing the stain material off the fabric’s fibers because the faster they move, the harder they hit (just like a moving baseball). • Some stains can be “set” in the fabric and are harder to remove if hot water is used. Hot water may cause a chemical reaction to occur that binds the stain and it’s reaction products to the fabric. • Cold water does not remove some stains; it simply permits the stain removing agents to work before the stain is set by heat. Heat, such as in the form of hot water, will cause some stains to set and become permanent. (McClintock, n.d.). • Never use hot water on protein based stains because it cooks the protein making the stain hard to remove (Wagner, 2013). S

  20. Concepts continued Optical brighteners: • Optical brighteners are synthetic chemicals that make fabrics appear to glow in the presence of ultraviolet light. • Brighteners are added to detergents to make us think our laundry is brighter and whiter than it really is. • A “real clean” shouldn’t be an optical illusion, according to Cara Bondi, a Research chemist at Seventh Generation. • http://www.seventhgeneration.com/learn/video/no-glow (Woodburne, 2010) • Optical brighteners may cause skin irritations and are not good for the environment because they can survive wastewater treatment and escape into our lakes, rivers and streams (Weekely, 2007).

  21. Inquiry 3 Question: Which detergent will get the protein mixture out completely using cold water compared to the original swatch of cotton? S

  22. Claim: Wisk will remove the baby food carrot stain the most completely compared to the original fabric. S

  23. Inquiry 3 Variable:Baby food, Carrots Process Overview: • Scrubbed ½ tsp. Carrots into 1 white cotton swatch • Dried using hairdryer for 5 minutes to help set stain • Pre-treated: Using ½ tsp. of laundry detergent, scrubbed onto stain then rinsed in bowl of cold water for 5 minutes • Dried with hairdryer and compared to other swatches • Washed each cotton swatch at home in cold water to complete the washing process • Completed process 3 times total, once for each detergent Tide H

  24. Observations • Pre-treating a protein based stain while still fresh reduces the chances of it staining permanently • Using cold water does not set the stain like hot water will Wisk Arm & Hammer Tide K

  25. Scientific Concepts Enzymes: • Biological catalysts or assistants and can either launch a reaction or speed it up (“What Are Enzymes?," n.d.). • The detergent industry is the largest single market for enzymes at 25% to 30% of total sales. • Allows for water temperatures to be lowered and shorter wash times needed thus decreasing energy costs and prolonging the life of the clothes. (Chaplin, 2012) • More environmentally friendly due to reduction in CO2 emissions when produced, allow for less use of harsh chemicals and biodegradable("Detergent Enzymes," n.d.). • http://www.novozymes.tv/video/625292/producing-a-modern-detergent ("Producing a Modern Detergent," n.d.). K

  26. Concepts Continued Emulsifiers: • Are chemicals that are added to detergent that help to break down and remove oil, grease and other stains. • These molecules work together to surround oil and grease on clothing, breaking the stains into extremely small particles that then dissolve in the wash or wash away with the water. (Grant, n.d.) • Emulsifiers have a hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tail. Hydrophilic Hydrophobic ("Detergents," n.d.).

  27. And the winner is... Wisk was best overall laundry detergent using the different variables S

  28. Further Questions • How would changing to a thicker cotton fabric affect the results? (baby onesie or t-shirt)? • How would the results be affected changing to a different fabric, i.e. silk, polyester, nylon, etc.? • How would shortening the time between pre-treating a stain and washing it in the washing machine affect the results? • What kind of outcome would there be using a different type of stain? K

  29. Resources Arm & Hammer Ingredients Additions. (2010, May 18). Retrieved from Arm & Hammer website: http://www.armandhammer.com/ARMandHAMMER-Ingredients.aspx. Chaplin, M. (2012, September 26). The Use of Enzymes in Detergents. Retrieved from Enzyme Technology website: http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/enztech/detergent.html. Detergent Enzymes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Novozymes website: http: //www.novozymes.com/en/about-us/positions-and- policies/Novozymes-positions/Pages/Detergent-enzymes.aspx. Detergents. (n.d.). Retrieved from BBC Bitesize Science website: http:://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway _pre_2011/chemical/detergentsrev1.shtml

  30. Every Day Chemistry - Why Does Turmeric Turn Red? (n.d.). Retrieved from The Human Touch of Chemistry website: http://humantouchofchemistry.com/why-does- turmeric-turn-red.htm. Grant, A. (n.d.). What is a Laundry Emulsifier? Retrieved from eHow website: http://www.ehow.co.uk/facts_7411901_ e471-emulsifier_.html. K Class Science Channel. (n.d.). Tumeric as Indicator, Acids and Bases, Chemistry. Retrieved from Youtube website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Olezbt9cxfo. McClintock, S. (n.d.). Baby Stains: A Guide to Removing Baby Stains. Retrieved from About.com website:http//babyclothes. about.com/od/babyclothingcare/a/BabyStainRmvl.htm.

  31. MWVevotherm. (n.d.). Evotherm Chemistry Episode 2 – Surfactant Chemistry. Retrieved from Youtube website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdKlyofu0Xw. Olivia, (November 14, 2013). Retrieved from phone call with Church & Dwight Customer Relations Department. Our History. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wisk website: http://www.wisk.com/#filter=.home. Producing a Modern Detergent. (n.d.). Retrieved from Novozymes website: http://www.novozymes.tv/video/625292/producing-a- modern-detergent. Surfactant. (n.d.). Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica website: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/575010/surfactant.

  32. Tibbits, D. (n.d.). Types of Laundry Stains. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_7310610_types-laundry-stains.html. Wagner, C. (2013, October 7). The Basic Principles of Baby Laundry. Retrieved from Pasporta Servo website: http://www.pasportaservo.org/forumoj/basic-principles-baby-laundry. What are Enzymes? (n.d.). Retrieved from wiseGEEK website: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-enzymes.htm#. Weekley, A. (2007, May 31). Optical Brighteners: Are Your Clothes as Clean as They Appear? Retrieved from Yahoo! Voices website: http://voices.yahoo.com/optical-brighteners-clothes-as-clean-as-they- 366187.html?cat=46. Woodburne, L. (2010, October 13). Optical Brighteners: Just Say No to the Glow. Retrieved from Seventh Generation website: http://www.seventhgeneration.com/learn/video/no-glow.