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Romani varieties and educational materials. Peter Bakker Aarhus University Institute for Anthropology, Archaeology and Linguistics. Romani. Romani is the biggest minority language in Europe The language forms a ”unity in diversity”: a range of dialects with a common core

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romani varieties and educational materials

Romani varietiesand educational materials

Peter Bakker

Aarhus University

Institute for Anthropology, Archaeology and Linguistics

romani
Romani
  • Romani is the biggest minority language in Europe
  • The language forms a ”unity in diversity”: a range of dialects with a common core
  • Just like any other natural language it is not homogeneous
  • Unlike many other European languages, there is no standard written language
language education
Language education
  • Since a UNESCO report in the 1950s there is a consensus that the best way towards literacy is the mother tongue
  • Ideally, Roma children first learn to read and write in their own variety
  • and later in the state language
  • And other Romani varieties and foreign languages
  • Teaching the mother tongue will enhance acquisition of the dominant language (!)
romani varieties in estonia
Romani varieties in Estonia
  • Linguist classify dialects into groupings
    • On the basis of shared linguistic features

(common words, common structures)

  • Roma classify dialects
    • On the basis of linguistic and other features
  • The labels/names used by Roma are not always the same as the ones used by linguists
linguists
Linguists...
  • Compare Romani dialects to find out:
    • Which words and construction they ALL have in common
    • Which words and constructions SOME have

in common

    • How and when these words and constructions entered the language or the varieties
    • Result: a map of migrations
names of subgroups
Names of subgroups
  • Based on (former) occupation
    • Lovari < Hungarian lo ”horse”
    • Kalderash < Roumanian câldâr ”kettle”
  • Based on country/region
    • Olah/Vlah ”Roumania”
    • Serbika ”Serbia”
    • Rom-ungro ”Hungary”
  • Estonia:
estonia romani dialects
Estonia: Romani dialects
  • (Laiuse: probably extinct since 1945)
  • North Russian Romani/Xaladytka
  • Cuxny/Lotfiko
  • Branches: Baltic Romani (no
latvia
Latvia
  • An early primer in Cyrillic writing by Leksa Manush
fiction poetry literature
Fiction/poetry/literature
  • An epic poem in Romani (and Latvian)
latvia16
Latvia
  • A much fancier primer/ABC book (1996)

in Roman letters

on line dictionaries
On-line dictionaries
  • ROMLEX
  • http://romani.kfunigraz.ac.at/romlex/dialects.xml
romlex i
ROMLEX I
  • North Russian Romani
  • North Russian Romani belongs to the Northeastern dialect group. Varieties of North Russian Romani are spoken in the Baltic-North Russian-Poland area. Another name often used to refer to North Russian Romani varieties is Xaladitka.
romlex ii
ROMLEX II
  • Lithuanian Romani
  • Lithuanian Romani belongs to the Northeastern dialect group. Historically Lithuanian Romani was spoken on the territory of present-day Lithuania. Today the dialect is spoken by a relatively small population of speakers living in Lithuania and in Baltic Russia, and recent asylum seeking migrants from Lithuania to Western Europe. Documentation of this dialect is yet sparse.
romlex iii
ROMLEX III
  • Latvian Romani
  • Latvian Romani belongs to the Northeastern dialect group. It is spoken by a small population in Lithuania and Latvia. Names also used to refer to this dialect are: Čuxny dialect or Lotfiko/Loftiko.
slide21

Dialect

Banatiski Gurbet Romani

Bugurdži Romani

Burgenland Romani

Crimean Romani

Dolenjski Romani

East Slovak Romani

Finnish Romani

Gurbet Romani

Gurvari Romani

Hungarian Vend Romani

Kalderaš Romani

Kosovo Arli Romani

Latvian Romani

Lithuanian Romani

Lovara Romani

Macedonian Arli Romani

Macedonian Džambazi Romani

North Russian Romani

Romungro Romani

Sepečides Romani

Sinte Romani

Sofia Erli Romani

Sremski Gurbet Romani

Ursari Romani

Welsh Romani

Romani

varieties

in

ROMLEX

slide22

Albanian

Bulgarian

Czech

English

Finnish

French

German

Hungarian

Latvian

Macedonian

Romanian

Russian

Serbian

Slovak

Swedish

target languages

source languages

a catalogue on the net
Publications in Romani, useful for Romani language education

First Edition. September 2004.Compiled by Peter Bakker and Hristo Kyuchukov

Publikacie andi Romani čhib kaj si lačhe andar i edukacia pal i Romani čhibAngluni edicia. Septembr 2004.Kerde o Peter Bakker thaj o Hristo Kju(ukov

A catalogue on the net
slide25
}damsonos, rikos. 1971. Čhajrí Ríngla. Pe Romaní čhíb Lotfítko Čhibátir Tulkindža Ļéksa M~nuš(poetry for children)
  • Ariste, Paul (ed.). 1938. Romenge Paramiši. Mustlaste Muinasjutte [Gypsy Stories]. Tartu: P. Arumaa. 22 pp.(legends)
  • Ariste, Paul. 1973. Einige Märchen der Čuchny Zigeuner [Lotfítko Romenge Paramiši][Some Fairy Tales of the Čuchny Gypsies]. Tartu: Tartu University Oriental Studies/Töid Orientalistika Alalt. (legends)
slide26
Manuš, Léksa, J~nis Neiland & K~rlis Rudevič.1997. Čig~nu-Latviešu-Ang·u un Latviešu-Čig~nu V~rdn§ca [Romani-Latvian-English and Latvian-Romani dictionary]. Riga: Zvaigzne ABC. (dictionary)
  • Rudvičs, K~rlis. No year. Romanu Dži. Otkedine Gija. Čig~na Sirds. Dzejo·u izlase [Romani life. Selected poems]. (poetry)
  • Bible. John. 1933. Evangelben M~ro Rask§ro Iisusko Hristoskīro Joannostir Čhindlo. Riga: Britanijas un }rzemju Bbeles Biedrba. (religion)
slide28
Rudvičs, K~rlis. 2000. Roméngu Barnos. Gi·orjá čh~vorénge pu romani te lotf’tku čhib.Čig~nu Barons.(poetry)
  • Kenrick, Donald. 2001. Romengiro Drom. Indijatyr ke Maškiratuno Derjav [Road of the Roma. From India to the Mediterranean]. Berlin: Parabolis. (history book)
  • Valmiki. No year. Valmiki’s Ramayana. Romani/English Translation (Abridged) by Leksa Manush. Chandigarh: Roma Publications.(religion)
xaladytka
Xaladytka
  • Grammar (Lithuania): Anton Tenser, 2006.
  • Grammar (Russia): Tatjana Ventzel, 1964, 1983
    • (Russian, German, English versions)
  • Texts from the 1920s and 1930s: more than 250 publications: technical texts, ABC books, translated literature, original literature, political propaganda....
slide30
Mahotin Džura. 1993. Adžutipe pre Romani Shib. Аджутипепрэроманичиб. Пособиепоязыкуромани [Help for the Romani Language]. Tver: Poligraph reklamizdat. 56 pp.
  • Svetkov, Georgi, 2003. Romengo Kirvo-Romengiro Kirvo.
romani educational catalogue
Romani educational catalogue
  • 710 titles (some listed twice) 2003/2004
  • Not yet complete (if ever...)
  • ABC books, songbooks, cookbooks, dictionaries, poetry, conversation guides, religious materials (Christian, Muslim...), biographies, etc.
  • http://fc.hum.au.dk/~peter_bakker/00D44EE2-0075824E.-1/romedu-
slide34

< Cookbooks

Text anthologies >

< Health

Stories >

slide35

< Folklore

Poetry >

< Biography

Bible >

slide36

social

relations

cards

\/

/\

grammar

/\

food

education

slide37
Materials in Estonia can be
    • Developed in local dialects
    • Adjusted from materials available for closely related varieties
    • Reworked from other (non-Romani) materials