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Kinetics. Answers question, “How fast?” Rate is proportional to the concentration of reactants raised to a power. Rate law is experimentally determined. =>. =>. Activation Energy. Minimum energy required to reach the transition state .

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Presentation Transcript
kinetics
Kinetics
  • Answers question, “How fast?”
  • Rate is proportional to the concentration of reactants raised to a power.
  • Rate law is experimentally determined.=>
activation energy
=>Activation Energy
  • Minimum energy required to reach the transition state.
  • At higher temperatures, more molecules have the required energy.
reaction energy diagrams
=>Reaction-Energy Diagrams
  • For a one-step reaction:reactants  transition state  products
  • A catalyst lowers the energy of the transition state.
rate limiting step
Rate-Limiting Step
  • Reaction intermediates are stable as long as they don’t collide with another molecule or atom, but they are very reactive.
  • Transition states are at energy maximums.
  • Intermediates are at energy minimums.
  • The reaction step with highest Ea will be the slowest, therefore rate-determining for the entire reaction. =>
energy diagram for a two step reaction
=>Energy Diagram for a Two-Step Reaction
  • Reactants  transition state  intermediate
  • Intermediate  transition state  product
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