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Respiration Physiology PowerPoint Presentation
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Respiration Physiology

Respiration Physiology

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Respiration Physiology

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  1. Respiration Physiology

  2. The Respiratory System • Functions to supply the body O2 and remove CO2 • Respiration: • Ventilation • Gas diffusion between alveoli and blood • Transport of Gases in blood • Gas diffusion between blood andtissue cells

  3. Respiratory System Functions Gas exchange Regulation of blood pH Voice production Olfaction Protection

  4. Respiratory System Divisions Upper tract Nose, pharynx Larynx Sinuses Lower tract trachea bronchi bronchiol Alveoli

  5. Nose Functions Passageway for air Defense: - Filter and Clear the air particle - Secretion: Ig, Interferons Humidifies warms air to body temprature Smell Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech

  6. sinuses

  7. Larynx Functions Maintain an open passageway for air movement Epiglottis and arytenoids prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx Vocal folds are primary source of sound production

  8. Tracheobronchial Tree

  9. MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE SYSTEM

  10. Secondary lobule (Acinus)

  11. Trachea

  12. Cross Sections of the Airways

  13. Resistance in the Airways

  14. Lung Nervous System Adrenergic:airway muscle, vessels, glands β2-adrenoceptors: relaxation in airways (Bronchodilation) Cholinergic:airway muscle, vessels, gland m3 –receptors: contraction (bronchoconstriction), Secretion in mucous Non Adrenergic- Non Cholinergic (NANC): - NANCi : dynorphin and VIPDilation in airways - NANCe : SPConstrictionin airways

  15. Periciliary Fluid By Ciliated Cells

  16. Structure of an Alveolus

  17. Lungs Two lungs: Principal organs of respiration Right lung: Three lobes Left lung: Two lobes Divisions Lobes, bronchopulmonary segments, lobules

  18. Pulmonary circulation

  19. Ventilation

  20. Thoracic Walls Muscles of Respiration

  21. Thoracic Walls Muscles of Respiration

  22. Pleura Pleural fluid produced by pleural membranes Acts as lubricant Helps hold parietal and visceral pleural membranes together

  23. During Inspiration Alveolar Pressure Changes

  24. Alveolar Pressure Changes During Expiration

  25. Inspiration: 0 -1 0 Expiration: 0 +1 0 Alveolar Pressure Changes

  26. Pleural pressure changes Inspiration: -5 -7.5 (cmH2O) Expiration: -7.5 -5 (cmH2O)

  27. Transpulmonary pressure (recoil)

  28. Compliance

  29. Comp= P=Transpulmonary pressure (Pleural Pressure) V= Tidal volume Compliance ΔV Comp=500/2.5 = 200ml/cmH2O ΔP Lung tissue itself =1/3 Surface tension = 2/3 Comp αelastic forces

  30. Transpulmonary pressure (recoil)

  31. Surface Tension & Surfactant Dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) + Ca2+ + Surfactant Apoproteins (SP) Functions: - - drying of the alveoli - Alveolar Stabilizing T4, cortisol, beta-adrenoceptors: surfactant Compliance surface tension Respiratory work

  32. Laplace’s law

  33. Respiratory (inspiration) Work W= F .L 3-5 % total body energy Respiratory work divided to three fractions: 1- Compliance or elastic work: 65% 2- InelasticTissue (Viscous )resistance work: 7% 3- Airway resistance work: 28% W= F/A . LA W=P.V

  34. 65% 7% 28%

  35. Pulmonary Volumes Tidal Volume (TV) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Residual Volume (RV)

  36. Pulmonary Capacities Inspiratory Capacity (IC):TV+IR Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):ERV+RV Vital Capacity (VC): TV+IRV+ERV Total Lung Capacity (TLC):TV+IRV+ERV+RV

  37. Spirometer and Lung Volumes/Capacities

  38. Minute and Alveolar Ventilation Minute Respiratory Volume: (MRV=RR.TV) Anatomic dead space: (VDA) Physiological dead space: Alveolar ventilation: VA= RR.(TV-VD)

  39. گردش خون ريوي در مقايسه با شريانهاي سيستميك، ضخامت ديواره شريانهاي ريه كم ، طول كوتاه، قطر بزرگتر، كومپليانس مشابه( زیاد) دو شريان مهم ريه : 1- شريان برونشي: خونرساني به بافت ريه تا برونشيالهاي انتهايي. در انتها به درون وريد ريوي و دهليز چپ تخليه مي شود. 2- شريانهاي ريوي: انتقال خون نيمه اكسي‍ژنه از قلب به ريه و خونرساني به برونشيال تنفسي و آلوئولها.