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Class Starter. Look at your Unit I Plan Using a highlighter, identify the target(s) or “I can” statements that we cover. “I can” statements will be your test!. “The State” What are the four characteristics of a state?. Nations, countries, and states all refer to the same thing!

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class starter
Class Starter
  • Look at your Unit I Plan
    • Using a highlighter, identify the target(s) or “I can” statements that we cover.
    • “I can” statements will be your test!
the state what are the four characteristics of a state
“The State”What are the four characteristics of a state?
  • Nations, countries, and states all refer to the same thing!
  • In order to be a “state”, you must have four things:
    • Territory
    • Population
    • Sovereignty (ability to make own laws)
    • Government
what are the four theories of the origin of the state
What are the four theories of the Origin of the State?
  • Major Political Ideas (Origin of the State)
  • Force Theory: 1 person/group forces power and submission of other people
Evolutionary Theory: State developed naturally out of the “Family.”
    • Head of Family  Head of Government
Divine Right Theory: Ordained by God
    • God gave them the right to rule
Social Contract Theory: State exists to serve the will of the people
    • People are the source of power – free to give or withhold power
traditional forms of government
Traditional Forms of Government
  • Feudalism: People are bound to a King (loyal) and in return King provides protection
  • Of the people, for the people (People are source of power)
  • Equal rights (protection of rights)
  • Representative government
  • Not responsible for policies
  • Autocracy/Oligarchy
  • Authoritarian – absolute power
  • One leader (Despot)
  • Governs without consent of the people
  • Centralized government (one unit)
  • Limited local government
  • One legislature (created by constitution)
  • Division of powers
  • Central & Local Governments (National, State, and Local Government)
  • Each have own set of powers
  • Separation of Powers (3 branches)
  • Limited powers – only handles matters that member states assign to it
  • Central organization – alliance of individual states
  • No power to make laws that apply to individual states
  • Come together for a common cause
  • Two branches are equal and separate
  • Executive Branch led by President
  • Executive & Legislative branches are popularly elected
  • Executive and Legislative branch are combined
  • Executive must answer to Parliament (Legislature)
  • Executive (Prime Minister) is elected by Parliament (Legislature)
Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Wonder Woman, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison
English Colonists brought ordered, limited, and representative government
    • Ordered: Justice of the Peace, Sheriff, Counties, etc.
    • Limited: Restricted power and individual rights
    • Representative: Government serves the will of the people
Influential Documents
    • Magna Carta (1215):granted Englishmen certain rights (trial by jury, protection of property, etc.)
      • Power of the monarchy was not absolute
    • The Petition of Right (1628):limited kings power
    • The English Bill of Rights (1689): written to prevent abuses by the King/Queen (right to a fair trial, no excessive bail, no cruel and unusual punishment)
john locke
John Locke
  • Natural Rights: rights inherent in human beings (life, liberty & property)
  • Consent of the Governed: government gets its authority from the people
  • Limited Government: restrictions should be placed on the government to protect the natural rights of the people
comparisons natural rights
Comparisons – Natural Rights

Thomas Jefferson – Declaration of Independence

John Locke

“The state of nature has a law to govern it”

“Life, Liberty and property”

“Laws of Nature and Nature’s God”

“Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

Need for a Stronger Government
  • Philadelphia Convention, May, 1787
  • Delegates agreed to create a new government
  • 55/74 delegates attended, 12/13 States attended
  • Framers (all had distinguished backgrounds and most had education)
  • Independence Hall – Sworn to Secrecy – Extremely HOT!
virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • 3 Branches (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial)
    • Legislative: Bicameral, decided by population & monetary contributions, House – popular election, Senate – House elected
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • 3 Branches (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial)
    • Legislative: Unicameral, Each state has equal representation
how should the states be represented in congress
How should the States be represented in Congress?
  • Connecticut Compromise
      • Bicameral Legislature: House – Population, Senate – equal representation
  • Sources of the Constitution
      • British tradition, State Governments, and John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government
date finished september 17 1787
Date Finished: September 17, 1787
  • Federalists vs.
    • Favored ratification
    • Madison & Hamilton
    • Federalist Papers


  • Opposed ratification
  • Jefferson
  • Believed National Government was too powerful
  • Wanted Bill of Rights
September 13, 1788: 11/13 States ratified the Constitution
  • New York City – Capital, Congress located on Wall Street
  • April 30, 1789: George Washington took the oath of office