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Collaborative Efforts Between Child Learning Center (CLC) and Family. Chapter 3. Children’s Characteristics Children are resilient and adaptive Play is the vehicle by which children learn and grow Children get their needs met from their environment Knowledge and experience has utility

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key points for consideration
Children’s Characteristics

Children are resilient and adaptive

Play is the vehicle by which children learn and grow

Children get their needs met from their environment

Knowledge and experience has utility

Learning starts with the practical and moves to the theoretical

Developmental and life skill competencies are often precursors to Educational competencies

The life experiences of a child is a portfolio of the community and his/her circle of influence

It’s the minute things that count and those things must constantly be reinforced

Children’s academic performance is a function of parental involvement; not income or social status

Goals for Teachers

Teachers must see themselves as a resource in children’s environment

The goal of the teacher is not to work so much with children but to create an environment for children to work

Teachers must find ways to create an environment filled with choices and praise

Teachers must free themselves to be creative in order to be effective teachers

Teachers must ensure that they are teaching the basic concepts of reading, writing, arithmetic/science

Build a curriculum behind everything you expect children to know.

Operationalize competence

Teachers must observe, draw connections, educate (Cycle of Influence)

Teachers must see collaboration with parents as an essential part of their duties

The best way to build relationships with the child is to build relationship with the parents

Key Points for Consideration
looking to cultural models that work
LOOKING TO CULTURAL MODELS THAT WORK
  • U.S. preschoolers are producing lower scores than their Asian counterparts.
  • Glimpse at these cultures
    • Parents promote education
    • Educators are held in high regard by parents and children
    • Poor academic performance bring shame to the family and the child
    • Education takes precedence to socialization
    • Education is part of the culture and occurs year around
cultural factors of change
Cultural Factors of Change
  • There have been collapses in the social fabric of our society
    • Goals on education are constantly changing in our society
    • Structure of family has changed considerable over the past two decades
  • The workplace is a cultural laboratory
    • As ECE educators we work directly with children and charged to work indirectly with families in the same manner
working to partner with parents
Working to Partner with Parents
  • Basic Assumptions We Must Embrace as Educators
    • Most parents are genuinely invested in the social and educational welfare of their children
    • Many parents are unaware of how to effectively collaborate and work with teachers towards an educational plan of action
    • Many parents are not aware of how much professional educators care
working to partner with parents1
Working to Partner with Parents
  • Consequently
    • It is important to help parents to see how educators are equally invested in the outcomes of children.
      • Spend time with parents who do
    • It is important that parents see links between what educators do and their relation to Ohio educational and developmental standards.
    • It is important to make parents apart of the plan of action.
      • Share information
      • Problem-solve
      • Recognize the successes of people
getting families involved in children s learning
Getting Families involved in Children’s Learning
  • Math
    • Sorting laundry and matching socks. When finished they can count pairs of socks for each family member and then add them together
    • Make a number lotto game and play it with parents
    • Circle numerals in the newspaper beginning with 1 and go to 10, or as far as the child can recognize
    • Estimate the weight of several household objects (i.e., balls, gallon of milk). Order from light to heavy
    • Do matching, sorting, categorizing activities using beans, buttons, pictures
getting fathers involved
Getting Fathers Involved
  • Ways to promote father involvements:
    • Invite men to take part in school activities
    • Address communications to fathers/grandfathers
    • Find out what activities fathers would be interested in
    • Involve males in parenting education classes
    • Schedule meetings/volunteer times considering available hours for fathers
  • Documented impacts of father involvements:
    • More likely to:
    • Enjoy school
    • Achieve higher grades
    • Participate in extracurricular activities
    • Less Likely to:
    • Repeat a grade
    • Be suspended or expelled from school
    • Behave violently in school
    • Be involved in acts of juvenile delinquency
  • Eliason & Jenkins (2008), pp. 51
pedagological core principles
Pedagological Core/principles
  • As a body of educators, we are invested in the educational outcomes of the child. We believe that optimal outcomes for the child can only occur when educators work collaboratively with families to meet the needs of children.
  • As a body of educators, we recognize that children must be provided with learning based activities which promote english/literacy, social studies, math, and science. We use children’s natural disposition to play as a vehicle to education and development. We understand how important it is for the child’s environment to be stress free and rich in resources that promote curiosity and self learning.
practical considerations bridging relationships
Practical considerations: Bridging relationships
  • Tell parents & community leaders what you need and ask for their help
    • Early learning content standards
    • Learning resources (i.e., Tissue rolls, Baby formula bottles)
  • Speak first to your most immediate businesses and community leaders
  • Invite parents to staff trainings and development
    • Have a section of time for parents and provide incentives (child supervision during the meetings)
      • Challenge speakers to adapt a portion of their trainings to accommodate the informational needs of families as well
      • Offer specific programs and trainings for parents
    • Offer tuition discounts after so many attendances
  • Commit a section of the facility to the development of a museum or archive for parents to tour.
    • Don’t take offense, instead, answer the question “What do you all do all day?”
practical considerations bridging relationships1
Practical Considerations: Bridging Relationships
  • Get the community involved
      • Get vouchers and coupons to which families would benefit (i.e., Laundry coupons, gas coupons)
      • Create a family dinner night where a portion is dedicated to discussing how parents can work with children at home
    • Churches are increasing their congregations and Fast Food restaurants are getting more customers because they are meeting the needs of the whole family
      • Effective churches have numerous family-based ministries that get the family involved
      • McDonalds create play areas to give parents a break while they dine
practical considerations family needs
Identify the needs and challenges of families

Offer trainings on financial management/ debt freedom

Time management

Effective parenting & Coping

Family blends & child needs

Solution Bank

Offer a stress free evening as an incentive to certain parents who collaborate

Open up for 4 hours and provide free care once a month

?

?

Practical Considerations: Family Needs
practical considerations question
Do parents know the program philosophy?

Operating policies?

Child interaction practices?

What’s on your parent’s bulletin board, newsletters, notes which are sent home?

Practical Considerations: Question?
national association of state boards of education recommendations
National Association of State Boards of Education Recommendations
  • Promote an environment that recognizes parents as the primary influence in children’s lives and a necessary partner to educators
  • Recognize that the self-esteem of parents is integral to the development of the child
  • Include parents in decision-making about their child and the early childhood program
  • Ensure opportunities and access for parents to observe and volunteer in the classroom
  • Promote information exchange between teachers and parents that will benefit the children
  • Provide a gradual and supportive transition process from home to school for those young children entering school for the first time
practical considerations communication links
Practical Considerations: Communication Links
  • Eliminate excuses by improving communication between educators, families, and community
  • When parents cannot be involved, ask for a family representative (i.e., grandparents, siblings)
  • Develop a pamphlet and community resources center at the child learning center
    • Toy Resource Library vouchers
    • Zoo and museum vouchers
  • Send a communication to families informing them that they need to be prepared to commit five minutes to meet with the lead teacher at least once every two weeks
practical considerations campaign drive
Practical Considerations: Campaign Drive
  • Have a campaign drive and obtain verbal contracts with parents to commit to 15 minutes a day reinforcing activities which were done over the past week.
    • Give parents the lesson plan and explain the activities
    • Give parents a list of recommendations about the home environment that could benefit the children (i.e., remove violent toys or themed media)
    • Follow-up with parents about the activities
      • How was the literacy activity last night?
      • How did the child do?
      • Did you notice any particular areas where we need to work with your child?
      • Avoid closed-ended questions like “Did you do the activity with your child?”
practical considerations reinforcing families
Practical Considerations: Reinforcing Families
  • Ask parents to share the activities they have done with children and to give you ideas so that you can develop curriculums that build on what they have done
  • Find ways to recognize parents who are partnering with educators and the centers
  • Create a weekly newsletter which outlines what you are doing to better educate children through ODE learning standards
  • Develop a webpage that outlines key information about your center and resources to parents
does technology provide solutions for partnering with families and communities
Does Technology Provide Solutions for Partnering with Families and Communities?
  • Most parents have internet and email services at home and at work
  • Electronic newsletter
  • Record audio instructions or messages for parents on cassette or CD
  • Send a weekly picture-text to parents (i.e., important milestone achievements or group learning exercises)
  • Every center needs to have a heavy duty copier so that parents can have copies of children’s weekly progress documents
  • Start a VHS or DVD video library of recordings of your best teachers in action.
    • Make available to parents and ask them how to improve (this can be a part of training)
  • Organizational websites are vital sources of information
a story about technology
Technology was kind enough to produce laptops.

My boss was kind enough to buy me one so that I could work while away from my office

Technology was kind enough to produce cellphones and pagers.

My boss was kind enough to buy me one so that I could be reached while away from my office

A Story About Technology
activity 1 investing in the technology of others
Identify general technological advancements that are common to most people

Discuss ways in which technology can be used to improve communication and to partner with parents and community

ACTIVITY 1. Investing in the technology of others
steps towards solutions
STEPS TOWARDS SOLUTIONS
  • Educators must approach the needs of parents in similar light to the needs of children.
    • Parental demonstration of frustration is not personal—it’s professional (respond in kind)
    • Parental demonstration of disinterest is not necessarily an issue of caring—it’s an opportunity to show how much you care.
    • Public and communicative displays of territorism is not necessarily an issue of ignorance—it’s an opportunity to demonstrate that you are on the same team
myths that empel the classroom
MYTHS THAT EMPEL THE CLASSROOM
  • “Children should be seen and not heard”
    • Author?
  • “Spare the rod spoil the child”
  • “Do as I say and not as I do”
  • These kids today are too spoiled, rotten, and got poor manners
  • Once I tell them once—they should know better
  • “One bad apple spoils the bunch”
current challenges to effective teaching
Current Challenges to Effective Teaching
  • Too many expectations and documentations
  • Not enough time in the day
  • We don’t get paid enough to do all this %@&(^)%#%$@ work
  • Not really sure what they want
eliminate role confusion between educators and parents
Ineffective Responses Posed by Teachers

Parents don’t care

Parents are too busy

Mothers are more concerned about themselves than their children

Couples today are most interested in buying things than in their children

Parents get mad when we call them

Parents don’t discipline their children

Parents get in the way

Ineffective Responses Posed by Parents

Teachers don’t want me there

My kids don’t want me there

I don’t have time

I’m paying them to take care of my children

Teachers know more than I do

I wouldn’t know what to do

I don’t want to bake any more cookies

It is the only time I have to do my work

It is the only time I have to myself

I don’t have a babysitter

ELIMINATE ROLE CONFUSION BETWEEN EDUCATORS AND PARENTS
references
REFERENCES
  • Berger, E. H. (2008). Parents as Partners in Education: Families and Schools Working Together (7th ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
  • Billman, J. and Sherman, J. (2003). Observation and Participation in Early Childhood Settings—A Practicum Guide (2nd ed., Ch. 8). Allyn and Bacon: Boston.
  • Dodge, D. T., Coler, L. J., and Heroman, C. (2002). The Creative Curriculum for Preschool (4th ed.). Strategies for Teaching, Inc.; Washington, D.C.
  • Gordon, A. M. and Williams-Browne, K. (2000). Beginnings & Beyond (5th ed.). Delmar Thomson Learning: Africa.
  • Krogh, S. and Morehouse, P. (2008). The Early Childhood Curriculum: Inquiry Learning Through Integration. McGraw-Hill Higher Education; Boston.
  • Mayesky, M. (2006). Creative Activities for Young Children (8th ed.). Thomson Delmar Learning.; U.S.
  • Wright, K., Stegelin, D. A., and Hartle, L. (2007). Building Family, School, and Community Partnerships (3rd ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
group activity
Group Activity
  • Unique Qualities to American Families Since the 1970s
    • Divorced has tripled
    • Children living with one parent has doubled (primarily female)
    • Births to unmarried mothers has doubled
    • Children born in poverty has increased from 14 to 20%
    • Working mothers with children under age 6 increased from 30 to 65%
    • Working mothers with school-age children has increased from 50 to 77%
  • Rising Cohorts of Parents
    • Children with developmental delays and disabilities
    • Single parents
    • Adoptive and foster parents
    • Divorce parents
    • Gay/lesbian parents
    • Homeless parents
    • Teenage parents
    • Grandparents raising grandchildren
    • Inter-racial parenting
    • Parenting where English is the second language
    • First-time parents
slide29
PLANNING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY
  • Lecture notes comprise of gathered information from the following areas:
    • Chapter 4. Eliason & Jenkins (2008).
    • Chapter 1 & 4. Dodge, Colker, & Heroman (2002).
    • Chapter 5. Mayesky (2002).
children teachers and creative activities key themes for consideration
CHILDREN, TEACHERS AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES—Key Themes For Consideration
  • Children possess both unique qualities and common characteristics which bind them to their environment.
    • Teachers must be certain that their practices do not compromise children’s uniqueness or their commonalities. Consequently, It is important for teachers to know the unique differences between each child and be aware of each child’s level of development, strengths, abilities, and special personality.
    • Children are often challenged to discover their uniqueness while at the same time develop socially adaptable characteristics which enable them to integrate into their families, communities, and greater society.
  • Watching child at play helps an adult understand the young person.
    • Teacher plays a role of a facilitator in the creative process.
    • As facilitators we engage in scaffolding by helping them develop new competencies, guide and provide opportunities, and to be sensitive and caring without interfering.
    • Teacher needs to allow the young child to deal directly with materials (acting as an aide rather than a leader or judge).
    • Talking to children about their art can foster children’s ability to express themselves through the arts.
principles that guide effective teaching
Principles that Guide effective Teaching
  • Effective learners actively process lesson plans
  • Presenting information from multiple perspectives increases the durability of instruction
  • Effective instruction should build upon student’s knowledge and experiences and be grounded in meaningful contexts (Ornstein & Behur-Horenstein, 1999)
slide32
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE EARLY CHILDHOOD CLASSROOMS
  • Classrooms that maximize interactions among children as they pursue independent and small groups activities.
  • An environment with challenging and interesting materials/activities.
    • Teachers should step back to observe, encourage and deepen children’s use of them.
    • Teachers should ask thought- provoking questions and make appropriate comments.
slide33
ATTENTION SPAN AND CHILDREN’S PHYSICAL NEEDS
  • In general, the younger children the shorter the attention span; however, it varies from individual to individual.
  • Teachers must consider attention span when developing activities.
    • DAP activities (not too easy; not too challenging) promote greater attention out of children.
  • Young children make it quite obvious when their attention span is waning- by a yawn, fidgeting etc.
    • Teachers need to be able to read these obvious signs of lessening (or lost) attention.
    • Teachers need to note activities which capture the attention of children longer. This can be vital information for future program development.
    • By changing activities and equipment to keep children “matched” to their present developmental levels, you are helping the children attend to activities longer on their own.
slide34
Activity Patterns
  • Start with familiar resources/ activities then move to more complex.
  • Take into account children’s physical characteristics.
  • Balanced interplay of time for both large and small motor tasks.
  • Creative activities for young children must also have a good balance between active and quiet activities.
    • Both should be incorporated in a single learning setting since young children have a difficult time sitting still for long periods of time.
  • The younger the child, the greater the tendency to become over stimulated, so the amount of activities for young children should be limited.
slide35
Transition From Group Times
  • Transitions from group times to the next activities can be chaotic if group times are uninteresting, too long, or too demanding.
    • Improve transition stage by sharing the day’s schedule with the children at the beginning of the day.
    • Allow children to help with the plans and participate in setting the limits.
    • Give positive reinforcement when things go well, not just reminders when someone fails to remember.
slide36
Transitions To Free Choice Times
  • Assure children that they will have ample time for their favorite activities (This reduces mad dashes for resources).
    • When balance is inadequate, children behave aggressively (Misbehaving and unconstructive play).
    • Children who are bored or frustrated during free choice time are rarely cooperative during clean up.
slide37
CHILDREN EXPRESSING SOCIAL EMOTIONAL NEEDS
  • Important to help the child find acceptable ways to express their feelings.
    • By providing activities that are less structured and allow freedom of expression.
      • Children’s fantasies/emotions seek expression thru the materials.
  • Children need to know about limits (setting them when necessary) and need to be helped so that they can channel emotions more positively.
    • Behavior problems demand creative response from the teachers. A disciplinary situation usually requires divergent thinking on the part of the adult.
    • Young children are egocentric and lack in perspective taking; therefore, it becomes difficult to understand the feelings of others.
slide38
Competition
  • Young children naturally compare their work to others and seek their teacher’s approval.
  • Teachers should respect children’s natural competitive spirit and/or parental values towards competition.
    • But avoid reinforcing competition.
strategies for success
STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS

Guidelines for developing creative and developmentally appropriate activities:

  • PREPARATION.
      • Try the activity before presenting it to the children.
      • Make sure all necessary equipments is present.
      • Think through the activity and modify the activity if necessary.
      • Explain the activity so that the children know how to begin and proceed.
      • After the children have started, circulate among them.
  • PRESENTATION OF CREATIVE ACTIVITIES. In planning for each activity, the teacher should:
      • Identify goals and possible learning for the activity.
      • List the materials necessary for the activity/ Determine how to set up the activity.
      • Decide how to stimulate and maintain the children’s interest.
      • Anticipate questions the children might ask.
      • Plan ways to evaluate the activity/ Consider follow-up activities.
      • Consider cleanup time and requirement.
hints towards facilitation of activities
HINTS TOWARDS FACILITATION OF ACTIVITIES
  • Dramatic play, creative movement, singing, outdoor activities, and small group projects should all take place within each week.
  • Do not move too fast when presenting new ideas or activities for young children.
  • Activities should be repeated so that the children learn new ways of approaching the materials expand their understanding through repetition.
  • Proper sequencing should be given close attention/ Activities should be build upon each other.
  • Once a child is involved in a creative activity, a few words of encouragement may be all that is needed to keep the child interested.
  • Children need enough time to finish an activity.
  • At end of each day, teachers needs to evaluate the day’s activities.
  • Ideas for the next day can be revised or created based on what then appears best.
  • A person who works with young children must always be open to new information and feedback.
slide41
COMPLETING A CREATIVE ACTIVITY
    • Finishing an activity involves clean up and young children can be very helpful with this.
    • Pro-social behaviors can be acquired if teachers take time to teach them about clean-up .
    • Young children usually want to help out and enjoy feeling needed.
    • Arrange the environment so that it is possible for the children to assist with cleanup.
    • Children can put away materials when they clearly understand where the materials belong.
    • Empower children by assigning roles during clean-up and rotating roles to guarantee fairness.
      • Give children ample notice before cleanup time approaches, giving them second and third reminders after about 5-9 minutes.
      • Teacher can circulate around the room giving quiet notice.
slide42
Completing an activity is important to young children and teachers have to allow time for individual differences in finishing creative activities.
    • Children stop when they are satisfied with what they have produced.
    • Teachers of young children realize that the decision to stop must be the child’s.
  • To ask a child who has stopped working to add to what has been created or to evaluate the item for reworking would violate the child’s creative integrity.
how preschoolers develop and learn
HOW PRESCHOOLERS DEVELOP AND LEARN
  • The preschool years (3-5 yrs) are a special time in the life of young children.
  • Children develop across multiple domains of development: Socio/Emotional,
  • Social/Emotional Development
    • Socialization- the process by which children learn the values and behaviors accepted by society.
    • Three goals for social/emotional development
      • Achieving a sense of self.
      • Taking responsibility for self and others
      • Behaving in a prosocial way
    • Social and emotional competence are essential to children’s well-being and success in school and in life.
    • A child who is socially and emotionally ready for school is
      • Confident, friendly, able to develop good relationships with peers.
      • Able to concentrate on and persist at challenging task.
      • Able communicate frustrations, anger, and joy effectively.
      • Able to listen to instructions and be attentive.
slide45
Physical Development
    • Children master increasingly sophisticated tasks and gain personal responsibility for their own physical needs.
    • Two goals for physical development
        • Achieving gross motor control.
        • Achieving fine motor control.
    • In may ways, physical development promotes social/emotional development (The reverse is also true).
    • Physical education in early grades support children’s academic achievement, general health, self-esteem, stress management, and social development.
  • Cognitive Development
    • Three goals for cognitive development
        • Learning and problem solving.
        • Thinking logically.
        • Representing and thinking symbolically.
    • The ability to take on another’s perspective leads them into friendship where they can share feelings and experiences.
slide46
Language Development.
    • Language become the essential tool for establishing relationships with adults and other children.
    • Two goals for language development
      • Listening and speaking
      • Reading and writing
    • Between the ages of 3 & 5, children’s vocabulary can grow dramatically
    • Listening, speaking, reading, and writing develop interdependently in children.
slide47
Ages and stages of Development
  • Three-Years-Old
  • Social/Emotional Development
      • Are learning to trust people around, which gives them confidence to become independent.
      • At this age social competence does not develop fully.
  • Physical Development
      • The play is more sustained and focused than toddler’s play.
      • Gross motor activities are great source of pleasure.
  • Cognitive Developmental
      • Three years olds are exploding with thoughts and ideas and use all of their senses to make sense of the world around them.
      • Can sort objects by only one characteristics at a time.
      • Are egocentric and many are able to show empathy.
  • Language Development
    • Most 3 yr olds can use plural terms, talk in sentence, recite simple rhymes , and ask questions
    • Love to share their thoughts with others and participate in conversation.
  • Four-Years –Old
  • Social/Emotional Development
        • They are wonderful mix of independence and sociability.
        • Love imitating adult behavior and play in groups of two or three.
  • Physical Development
        • Are increasingly able to control their muscle.
        • Their fine motor coordination improves dramatically as well.
  • Cognitive Development
        • Four-years-olds are enchanted by principles of cause and effect and always want to know why things happen.
  • Language Development
        • The language of 4 years old progresses rapidly.
        • They like to use big words and deeply enjoy their ability to communicate.
slide48
Five-Years-Old
    • Social Development
      • They are increasingly independent, self sufficient individuals.
      • They are dependable and responsible.
      • They are exceedingly social.
      • 5 year olds prefer cooperative play to solitary or parallel play.
    • Physical Development
      • They showmore agility, balance and coordination both in gross and fine motor movements.
    • Cognitive Development
      • They learn new concepts through experimentation and discovery.
      • Are able to think in complex ways
      • Can categorize by two features, such as color and shapes.
    • Language Development
      • Show a significant growth in their communication skills.
      • They have adult-like word order, using pronunciation like a grown-up.
      • They also begin to extend their oral language skills to reading and writing.
the teacher s role

The Teacher’s Role

The teacher’s role is an ongoing cycle of interacting with children and making decisions about when and how to meet individual and group needs.

The cycle has 3 parts:

1. Observing children

2. Guiding children’s learning

3. Assessing children’s

learning

observing children
OBSERVING CHILDREN
  • Initial observations may be informal
    • Gradually make better observations in order to properly guide learning
    • Informal observations occur naturally throughout the day
    • Keep file cards or post-its handy in order to jot down what you hear and see
  • Should schedule regular formal observations
    • Watch one or more children systematically and record what you hear and see
    • Try to have another adult with children (parent, co-teacher) so that you can be free to do planned observations
    • Observation notes will provide rich information that can be used for evaluation and analysis
    • Observation notes should be objective and factual and should not reveal your impressions, interpretations, or assumptions. Notes should not include labels, intentions, evaluations, judgments, or negatives.
    • Notes should include descriptions of an action, quotations of language, descriptions of gestures, facial expressions, and creations.
    • The more familiar you are with the goals and objectives for the children, the more efficient you will be in observing and recording what you see.
guiding children s learning
GUIDING CHILDREN’S LEARNING
  • Using a range of teaching approaches is most effective
  • Child initiated-learning
    • When you want children to explore and construct an understanding on their own
    • Children choose the activity and the action
    • Teachers intentionally create an interesting and rich environment that offers children choices
    • Furniture arrangement, daily routines, material selection, and social climate all are important
  • Teacher-directed learning
    • Involves planning how to teach a concept or skill, materials needed, and determining if it should be taught individually, to a group, or whole class
  • Life in the classroom requires a range of teacher involvement
    • Talk with children about their work
    • Ask children closed and open-ended questions
  • Adapt instruction to include all children
    • Gifted children
      • Stock interest areas with interesting and challenging materials
      • Follow children’s interests
      • Teach to the child’s strengths
      • Have realistic expectations
guiding children s learning cont d
GUIDING CHILDREN’S LEARNING cont’d
  • Children with disabilities
    • Use clear visual cues
    • Use transition-preparation techniques,
    • Use peer buddies as teaching models
    • Use visual and tactile props
    • Encourage active participation in outdoor and gross motor play, then have calming activities before returning to sedentary activities
    • Have child’s attention before giving new rules
    • Assess and identify needs for assistive technology with a specialist
  • Second-language learners
    • Learn words in child’s home language
    • Use concrete objects and gestures
    • Establish a classroom community
    • Use lots of repetition, running commentary, and actions as you talk
    • Establish familiar routines
    • Assist children in sociodramatic play
    • Be patient– give them time to get their words together
    • Involve families
guiding children s learning cont d1
GUIDING CHILDREN’S LEARNING cont’d

In depth or long-term studies allow teachers to integrate content areas and address developmental goals:

  • Select an appropriate topic
  • Create a web of important ideas
  • Determine how content knowledge and process skills can be learned through this study
  • Discuss topic with children
  • Inform families of proposed study topic
  • Use forms to organize materials and plan activities
  • Assemble relevant materials and resources
  • Facilitate investigations
  • Document findings
  • Plan a special event to end the study
assessing children s learning
ASSESSING CHILDREN’S LEARNING
  • Assessment is the process of gathering information about children in order to make decisions
  • Bowman et al.(2001) identified 4 purposes:
    • Assessment to support learning
    • Assessment to identify special needs
    • Assessment for program evaluation and monitoring trends
    • Assessment for program/school accountability
  • Collecting facts
  • Documenting observations
  • Analyze and evaluate collected facts
  • Collecting children’s work in portfolios
    • Portfolios can be used to
      • Share information with families
      • Help children reflect on their work and recognize their own skills and progress
      • Review a child’s progress, set goals, and plan instructional technologies
    • Completed work that can be compared over time:
      • Drawings, paintings, collages, weavings
      • Writing (scribbles, letters, names, numbers, signs)
      • A book made by the child
assessing children s learning cont d
ASSESSING CHILDREN’S LEARNING cont’d
  • Use what you’ve learned to plan
    • Plan for each child
      • Review progress in social/emotional development
      • Review progress in gross and fine motor development
      • Review progress in cognitive development
      • Review progress in language development
    • Plan for the group
      • Identify which children need more focused instruction on certain skills
      • Large group and small group instruction
key sources to draw from for curriculum development
Key Sources to Draw from for Curriculum Development
  • Knowledge of early childhood
  • Children’s individual characteristics
  • The knowledge base of various disciplines
  • The values of our culture, parents desires
  • The knowledge children need to function proficiently in society
planning the curriculum1
Planning the Curriculum

Principles of Curriculum (Shepard, 2001)

Curriculum and Assessment (NAEYC (2003)

Children are active and engaged

Goals are clear and shared by all

Curriculum is evidence-based

Valued content is learned through investigation, play, and focused, intentional teaching

Curriculum builds on prior learning and experiences

Curriculum is comprehensive

Professional standards validate the curriculum’s subject-matter content

Curriculum is likely to benefit children

  • All students can learn
  • Challenging subject matter is aimed at higher order thinking and problem solving
  • Diverse learners are given equal opportunities
  • The relationship between learning in and out of school is authentic
  • Students foster important dispositions and habits of mind
  • Students enact democratic practices in a caring community
key points for consideration1
Key Points for Consideration

Active Learning Experiences

KWL Chart

K: Wht do we know

W: What do we want to know or wonder

L: What we learned

Questions to ask children in curriculum development:

What do you wonder/want to know about

What can we do to find out

What materials do we need

What will you bring and what would you like for me to bring

Several researchers purport that activity generates learning

Learning should be hands-on

  • Role Playing
  • Creative Dramatics
  • Simulations
  • Pantomine
  • Games
  • Art Activities
  • Storytelling
points of consideration
Points of Consideration

Project work

Thematic work

Question/problem focused activities

Put children in control of their learning.

This is new to them and often stimulates growth in all areas

  • Curriculums must respect diversity and the range of children’s developmental needs
  • Teachers sometimes plan a curriculum for the entire year…..
    • While this can be a positive, the curriculum must have room for children’s input
    • Start with a needs assessment to discover children’s needs
  • Curriculums should emphasize academic needs, developmental needs, social/cultural needs
assessment tools
Assessment Tools

Informal Assessment

Formal Assessment

School readiness assessment

Developmental screening

Achievement tests

  • Observations
  • Anecdotal comments
  • Brief conference summaries
  • Checklists
  • Rating scales
  • Performance samples
  • Portfolio entries
  • Journals
  • Learning team reports
key points of consideration
Key Points of Consideration
  • Research indicates that delaying school entry does not, in most cases, benefit children
  • Group-administered standardized achievements test are not recommended before the third grade (Kamii, 1990; Eliason and Jenkins, 2008, pp.71)