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Outline : Chlamydia Gonorrhea Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Human Papillomavirus & Genital Warts Genital Herpes Syphilis HIV & AIDS Guidelines for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections. Chapter 14 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections.

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chapter 14 preventing sexually transmitted infections




Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Human Papillomavirus & Genital Warts

Genital Herpes



Guidelines for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections

Chapter 14Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections

preventing sexually transmitted infections
The WHO estimates 1 million people worldwide are infected daily with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), not including HIV

STIs have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S.

Of the more than 25 known STIs, some are still incurable

Each year, more than 19 million people in the U.S. are newly infected with STIs, almost half of which are seen in young people between the ages of 15 and 24

Currently, the U.S. has the highest rate of STIs of any country in the industrialized world

Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections

Most prevalent STI in the U.S.

Caused by a bacterial infection that spreads

During vaginal, anal, or oral sex

From the vagina to a newborn baby during childbirth

Can cause serious damage to the reproductive system

Is a major factor in male and female infertility

May not produce symptoms; thus 3 of 4 infected individuals don’t know they’re infected until the infection has become quite serious

2.3 million cases are reported each year in the U.S.

About 80% of these cases are reported in women between the ages of 15 and 24


When symptoms are present, they include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vaginal bleeding, and arthritis

Treatment requires oral antibiotics

Damage to the reproductive system is irreversible

Sexually active women under 25, older women with multiple partners and/or previous STIs, and those who do not regularly use condoms should be tested regularly for chlamydia

More than 25 diseases are spread through sexual contact. About 1 in 4 adults in the United States has a sexually transmitted disease.

Caused by a bacterial infection

Transmitted through contact with the vagina, penis, anus, or mouth of an infected person

Symptoms in men

Typical symptoms include a pus-like secretion from the penis and painful urination

Symptoms in women

Women also may have discharge and painful urination

Up to 80% of infected women don’t experience symptoms until the infection has become fairly serious

At this stage, women develop fever, severe abdominal pain, and pelvic inflammatory disease


Untreated gonorrhea can produce

Infertility, widespread bacterial infection, heart damage, arthritis

Blindness in children born to infected women

Treated successfully with penicillin and other antibiotics

pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Each year more than 1 million women in the U.S. experience an episode of PID

Not a true STI, but rather complications resulting from STIs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea

Often develops when the STI spreads to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries

Sexually active women, especially those under age 25, are at higher risk

The more sex partners a woman has, the greater the risk

pelvic inflammatory disease1
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Complications include scarring and obstruction of the fallopian tubes, infertility, ectopic pregnancies, and chronic pelvic pain

Women with PID who become pregnant may have an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy which destroys the embryo and can result in the woman’s death

More than 100,000 women in the U.S. become infertile as a result of PID

pelvic inflammatory disease2
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Symptoms include

Fever, nausea, vomiting, chills, spotting between menstrual periods, heavy bleeding during periods

Pain in the lower abdomen during sexual intercourse, between menstrual periods, or during urination

Many women do not know they have PID because symptoms are not always present

PID is treated with antibiotics, bed rest, and sexual abstinence

Surgery may be required to remove infected or scarred tissue or to repair or remove the fallopian tubes or uterus

human papillomavirus hpv genital warts
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) & Genital Warts

HPV is one of the most common causes of STI

There are over 100 strains of HPV; over 30 are sexually transmitted

Some strains of HPV infect the genital area and can cause genital warts

Others are “high risk” types and may lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, or penis

At least 80% of women will acquire genital HPV infection by age 50

Caused by a viral infection that is spread

Through genital or oral contact

From the vagina to a newborn baby

Most people have no signs or symptoms and can transmit the virus to a sex partner

human papillomavirus hpv genital warts1
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) & Genital Warts

Warts appear anywhere from 1 to 8 months after exposure

Warts can be found

On the penis and around the vulva and vagina

In the mouth, throat, rectum, the cervix, or around the anus

One million new cases of genital warts are diagnosed yearly in the U.S.

In some cities, nearly half of all sexually active teenagers have genital warts

human papillomavirus hpv genital warts2
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) & Genital Warts

Health problems include

Increased risk for cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, and penis

Enlargement and spread of the warts, leading to obstruction of the urethra, vagina, and anus

Warts over the bodies of babies born to infected mothers (thus, Cesarean sections are recommended)

human papillomavirus hpv genital warts3
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) & Genital Warts

Treatment requires complete removal of all warts by

Freezing them with liquid nitrogen, dissolving them with chemicals, or removing them through electrosurgery or laser surgery

Patients may have to be treated more than once because genital warts can recur

human papillomavirus hpv genital warts4
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) & Genital Warts

Prevention is best accomplished through a mutually monogamous sexual relationship with an uninfected partner

2006, the FDA approved Gardasil, the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases in women caused by HPV

Gardasil protects against 4 HPV types that cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts

The vaccine is approved for females between 9 and 26

To get the full benefits, women should get the vaccine before they become sexually active and not be infected with any of the 4 HPV types covered by the vaccine

It has not been widely tested in women over 26

genital herpes
Genital Herpes

A common STI caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)

Several types of HSV produce different ailments, including

Genital herpes, oral herpes, shingles, and chicken pox

The two most common forms of HSV are Types 1 and 2

Type 1 is most commonly known to cause oral herpes

Cold sores or fever blisters appear on the lips and mouth

HSV Type 2 is better known as the virus that causes genital herpes

About 135 million people over the age of 12 carry HSV Type I, most of which acquired the virus as children

Another 45 million people over the age of 12 carry HSV Type 2

1 in 4 women, 1 in 5 men, 1 in 5 adolescents are currently infected with genital herpes (HSV 2)

genital herpes1
Genital Herpes

HSV is a highly contagious virus

Victims are most contagious during an outbreak

HSV spreads by contact with an active sore

HSV can also be spread through virus-containing secretions from the vagina or penis

A few days following infection, a tingling sensation and sores appear on the infected areas (mouth, genitals, rectum) but may also surface on other parts of the body

genital herpes2
Genital Herpes

Along with sores, victims usually have mild fever, swollen glands, and headaches

Symptoms disappear within a few weeks, causing some people to believe they are cured

Herpes is presently incurable; its victims do remain infected

The virus can remain dormant for extended periods, but repeated outbreaks are common

Outbreaks can be precipitated by excessive fatigue, stress, cold, wind, wetness, heat, sun, sweating, friction, lack of sleep, illness, restrictive clothing, popcorn, coffee, peanuts, chocolate, and alcohol


Caused by a bacterial infection

Transmitted through direct contact with a syphilis sore during vaginal, anal, or oral sex

In the primary stage, about 3 weeks after infection, a painless sore appears where the bacteria entered the body

The sore disappears on its own in 3-6 weeks

If untreated, the infection progresses to the secondary stage in which a rough/reddish-brown rash appears on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet

Additional sores may appear within 6 months of initial outbreak but will also disappear by themselves

A latent stage during which victim is not contagious may last up to 30 years (victims think they are healed)

Some people develop paralysis, gradual blindness, heart disease, brain and organ damage, or die as a direct result of the infection

hiv and aids

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Virus that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Any of a number of diseases that arise when the body’s immune system is compromised by HIV

Opportunistic infections: Infections that arise in the absence of a healthy immune system, which would fight them off in healthy people

hiv and aids1

HIV is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood (sharing hypodermic needles) and sexual contact

Upon infection, the HIV virus multiplies, attacks, and destroys white blood cells

White blood cells are part of the immune system, which fights infections and diseases

As the number of white blood cells destroyed increases, the body’s immune system gradually breaks down or may be completely destroyed

Without the immune system, a person becomes susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers

hiv and aids2

When the infection progresses to the point at which certain diseases develop, the person is said to have AIDS

HIV itself doesn’t kill, nor do people die of AIDS

AIDS is the term designating the final stage of HIV infection

Death is caused by a weakened immune system that is unable to fight off opportunistic infections

hiv and aids3

Early symptoms of AIDS include

Unexplained weight loss, constant fatigue, mild fever, swollen lymph glands, diarrhea, sore throat

Advanced symptoms include

Loss of appetite, skin diseases, night sweats, deterioration of mucous membranes

The two most common fatal conditions in AIDS patients are

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (a parasitic infection of the lungs)

Kaposi’s sarcoma (type of skin cancer)

hiv and aids4

HIV infection is determined through an HIV antibody test

Once infected, the immune system forms antibodies that bind to the virus

Most infected people will show these antibodies within 3 months of infection; the average is 20 days

In rare cases, they are not detectable until after 6 months or longer

transmission of hiv
Transmission of HIV

HIV is transmitted by the exchange of cellular fluids, including blood and other body fluids containing blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and maternal milk

These fluids can be exchanged:

During sexual intercourse

Sharing hypodermic needles with someone who is infected

Between a pregnant woman and her developing fetus

Infection of a baby from the mother during childbirth

During breast feeding (infrequent)

From a blood transfusion or organ transplant (rare)

myths about hiv transmission
Myths about HIV Transmission

HIV virus can not be transmitted through perspiration

Sporting activities with no physical contact pose no risk to uninfected individuals

Blood from an infected person cannot penetrate the skin of an uninfected person except through an opening in the skin

A person should use vinyl or latex gloves when performing work that requires direct contact with someone else’s blood or open wound

myths about hiv transmission1
Myths about HIV Transmission

HIV is not transmitted through casual contact

It cannot be caught by shaking hands with or hugging an infected person; using a toilet seat, dishes, or silverware used by an infected person; sharing a drink, food, a towel, or clothes with a person who has HIV

The chances of getting infected during physical or medical procedures are nil as health care workers take extra care to protect themselves and their patients from HIV

You cannot catch HIV from animals or insects as animals do not contract HIV

trends in hiv infection and aids
Trends in HIV Infection and AIDS

As of 2007, estimates indicate that

About 33 million people worldwide have HIV

More than 25 million have died from AIDS since the epidemic began in 1981

15.4 million women now live with HIV

About 1.2 million people in the U.S. have HIV and about 25% of them are unaware of the infection

1 in every 300 Americans is infected

hiv testing
HIV Testing

A person can be tested in several ways

Public Health Department

Access the CDC website (

Call the National AIDS Hotline (1-800-CDC-INFO)

STI Hotline (1-800-227-8922) for local testing facilities