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POLICING COERCIVE CONTROL

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  1. POLICING COERCIVE CONTROL DIMENSIONS, OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

  2. the italian woman henri matisse

  3. “VIOLENCE WASN’T THE WORST PART.”

  4. HOME OFFICE DEFINITION: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE & COERCIVE CONTROL (2012) • Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour,  violence or abuse….regardless of gender or sexuality. This encompasses …the following types of abuse: • psychological • physical • sexual • financial • emotional

  5. Sheffield man jailed after admitting ‘coercive control’ “Mohammed Anwaar admitted forcing Gemma Doherty to behave how he wanted for over a year, restricting who she could see, what she was allowed to wear and what not to eat. He used fear to make her run on a treadmill every day, showing her pictures of other women’s bodies and telling her she did not look as good as they did.” Sheffield Crown Court – 10 offences in total. 28 months sentence 18/05/2016

  6. WHY WE’RE HERE • Current approaches weren’t working • New model of Coercive Control • Government commitment to new framework • Police are vital link

  7. WHEN PARTNER ABUSE = ASSAULT .Violence Focused .Incident Based .INJURY AS MARKER .Calculus of HARMS . - Not what women and children experience -

  8. U.S. INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDE RATE DECLINE 1976-2000FBI (SHR, 1976-2000) FEMALE MALE

  9. HOW THINGS (DIDN’T) WORK • 27 year old Somerset man, Jamie Mitchell bit his girlfriend, punched her 21 times, fracturing her eye socket and breaking her nose and cheekbone when she came to his room to “talk things over.” Controlled her in numerous ways and caused severe psychological trauma. (Dec. 11, 2016) -suspended sentence…attributed to ‘mental health’ issues

  10. Attrition from Report to Punishment(Hester 2006; Hester et al 2008)

  11. Rape Cases in UK CJ System • 31% partners • 28.7% acquaintances • 24.1% family/step-family • 3.8% strangers (known < 24 hrs) Hester (2013)

  12. UK Partner Rape cases: • More likely to result in arrest • More likely to be withdrawn • Less likely to be charged • Less likely to result in conviction • Convictions for lower charge of assault (Hester, M. (2013) From Report to Court: Rape Cases and the Criminal Justice System in the North East, Bristol:Unversity of Bristol in association with the Northern Rock Foundation.

  13. Ms. W reported she was raped a week ago by ex and had been so previously. Police recorded a number of previous rapes by same offender and another ex where she had withdrawn complaint. They recognized vulnerability of Mrs. W to further abuse. But not recorded as “crime” because “she had withdrawn previous complaint. “

  14. Coercively Controlling Male & Cooperating Victim Life on Three Planets Domestic Violence: Criminal Charges; CRIMINAL COURT Planet I Neglectful Mother & Invisible men Child Protection Planet 3 Contact & Custody FAMILY COURT Planet 2 Adapted from Radford & Hester, 2006 ‘Good Enough’ Father & Alienating Mom

  15. When viewed through a violence lens Frustration, Victim-blaming, Revolving Door and Withdrawal on the Front Lines Abuse and Sexual Coercion are TRIVIALIZED & NORMALIZED

  16. HOW THINGS (DIDN’T) WORK • 27 year old Somerset man, Jamie Mitchell bit his girlfriend, punched her 21 times, fracturing her eye socket and breaking her nose and cheekbone when she came to his room to “talk things over.” Controlled her in numerous ways and caused severe psychological trauma. (Dec. 11, 2016) -suspended sentence…attributed to ‘mental health’ issues

  17. Terri (46) and Mike (62) Greene (murdered 22/9/11). ‘KILLER IS ‘NARCISSISTIC SOCIOPATH WITH NO KNOWN HX OF VIOLENCE.’ ‘WTINESS-SURVIVORS’ ARE CO-VICTIMS ‘ALONE,’ ‘FORESAKEN,’ WALKING HER DEATH MARCH’ . SISTER IDENTIFIED 132 INDEPENDENT DV EVENTS OVER 25 YRS IN MI. MULTIPLE DV, STALKING, SEXUAL ABUSE, THREATS TO KILL, CHILD ABUSE, ETC… “WHAT DID THAT HAVE TO DO WITH THE ‘REAL VIOLENCE’ OF THE MURDER?”

  18. VICTIM BLAMING IF………………………. • No calls to police or hospital visits • If violence wasn’t severe, abuse wasn’t severe • Dropped charges • Withdrew Protective Order • Stayed and/or Returned to Relationship • “Loves” him/Protects him/Lies for him

  19. ABUSE CAN BE STOPPED 79-86/of every l00 cases reported involve ongoing abuse

  20. MAKING THE TRAGEDIES OF THE WOMEN (AND SOME MEN) WE WORK WITH GRIEVABLE

  21. THINGS BEGIN TO CHANGE…….. • DASH– • RISK ASSESSMENT BASED ON HISTORICAL/MULTIPLE FACTORS • MARACS- • SAFETY WORK IS ‘ONGOING’ • PHA EXPANSIONs- STALKING • ABUSE CROSSES SOCIAL SPACE • DHR’s • UNRECOGNIZED COERCIVE CONTROL COULD HAVE SAVED LIVES

  22. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE & COERCIVE CONTROL Coercive Behavior CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR A range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour. An act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim.”* (Home Office, 2014.)

  23. Coercive Control Physical/SexualViolence Intimidation& Stalking & Degradation Control Isolation

  24. UK: “OFTEN” or “All THE TIME” • 65.5% pushed or shoved • 58” “shook” or “roughly handled” • 55.2% “smacked” or “slapped” or twisted their arm • 46.6% Kicked, bit or punched them

  25. DV is Not ABOUT SEVERE INJURY

  26. FREQUENCY IS GENDERED • Female sole perpetrators < 4% of police reports • 53% of men but only 3% of women > 3 reports • BUT...women are arrested in 1 of every 3 reports. Men are arrested in only l in 10 reports • Hester, M. Who Does what to Whom? Gender and domestic violence perpetrators in English police records. BJC 2013 (Forthcoming)

  27. Domestic Violence Offenders • 50 % of perpetrators >1 dv incidents in 3 yrs • 18% reoffended against different partners • 29 perpetrators > 10 offenses. • DV perpetrators arrested for more nondv offenses (2.24) than dv offenses (.83) • If convicted, fewer repeat offenses. • Previous dv offenses strongest predictor of repeat

  28. Assessing Violence= Harms to Safety • Frequency • Duration (5.5-7.2 years) • Cumulative Effects • Severity?

  29. Partner Sexual Assault VERY COMMON > 30% REPEATED JUST PLAIN ‘JOE’ CONTINUUM OF SEXUAL COERCION

  30. SEXUAL COERCION

  31. Rape as Routine • He told me he wanted to fool around and I told him no. He kept persisting and taking off my clothes and I kept fighting him off. He took his belt and tied my hands behind my back aqnd he had fun. I never wanted him to do that again like that so I never said ‘no. • Dila, age 26

  32. Types (push to burn) How Often (each?)’ Typical Incident Sexual assault/coercion When you say no? lst, worst, most recent Pregnancy Use of Children Weapons Violence against others Against others Recent Changes Assessing partner violence

  33. Partner Stalking Largest Category of stalking cases (50% v. 13%.) Average 2.2 years 51%- 80% initiated during the relationship 63%-69% of attempted or actual femicide victims stalked during relationship (McFarlane, 1999)

  34. I'd go to the bathroom and if I was in there, you know, just sitting there was relief. [She thought], “Thank God, I'm alone.” Just to go to the bathroom--To me that was like going to Paris for some women. And if I was in there two minutes longer than he thought I should be just come in there [and she motioned grabbing herhair, showing how he would drag her out of the bathroom right off the toilet]. And if I was just in there, he wouldsay I was thinking --” conspiring.”

  35. Interfere by Sabotage/ Attack Life Invasion Intimidation Surveillance STALKING Strategies How is he tracking you? Follow Watch Wait Show up Tracking software Obtain information about target Proxy How many ways has he invaded your life? Unwanted contact at home, work, and other places Phone calls Other unwanted contact Property invasion Spreading rumors Public humiliation Harass friends and family How much have you lost or what are you afraid of losing? Financial & work sabotage Ruining reputation Custody interference Attack friends and family Physical/ sexual attack How has he tried to intimidate/ scare you? Threats Property damage Forced confrontations Keep target from leaving or going somewhere Road rage Threaten or actually harm self Threats to target about harming others

  36. Fear • Two characteristics of fear • Stalking victims who experienced violence during the relationship were more afraid than victims with no history of violence with the stalker (Nicastro et al., 2000; Brewster, 2002) • Explicit threats are associated with higher fear than actual assault (McEwan et al., 2007).

  37. What does he do when he really wants to make you afraid? Threats to kill you, himself or children How has your behavior changed because of fear? Stalking Threats ag. pets, fam. Members, co-workers Invisible threats Made you crazy? Gas lighting Drink/drugs/pornography/suicide? When were you most frightened of your partner? Recent changes If you don’t do what he wants…. Make you do something of which you’re ashamed Intimidation and threats

  38. DEGRADATION • ritual enactments associated with sex, bodily functions or obedience • TARGET AREAS OF GENDER IDENTITY FROM WHICH PARTNERS GET THEIR SELF-RESPECT, ESTEEM AND POWER • Link to Ownership • Psychological abuse & Gas-light games

  39. ISOLATION RIGHT TO SOCIETY/SUPPORT/FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

  40. level of support friends family workmates Helpers Self-isolation Medical care & other services Isolation at as well as form phone car jealousy self-isolation personal possessions Link to level of violence/control Assessing Isolation

  41. CONTROL Harms to equality/autonomy/freedom • EXPLOITATION (takes what is hers; treated as servant) • DEPRIVATION (woman as dependent); exchanges necessities for compliance • REGULATION – “Arbitrary Deprivations of Liberty.” (woman as captive)

  42. Controlling behaviors charged under s. 76 • Access to/use of money, phone, FACEbook or other social media • Enforced Diet • Prohibited contact with friends, family and health services • Monitoring and/or constraining movements (‘never letting her go out alone’) • Continual belittlement • Regulating what she wore, sleep, hairstyle & makeup • Harming or threatening children • Continual jealous accusations

  43. SAFETY ZONES SEARCH AND DESTROY

  44. Coercive control is the single most common context in which child abuse occurs

  45. Assessing Control • Access to Resources: Money & Material necessities • Sexuality • Extreme Jealousy • Use of Time • Movement • What are his ‘Rules?’ • What happens when you break ‘rules?’ • Expectations re: gender • CC of Children • Recent Change • Her words/experiences

  46. BEST PRACTICE • RULE OUT COERCIVE CONTROL • OPEN A WINDOW • REVIEW THE ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE • HOW DOES THE OFFENDER PERSONALIZE CONTROL? • WHO ELSE KNOWS? • HOW IS THE ABUSE DOCUMENTED? • HOW DID SHE ‘RESIST’ OR MINIMIZE • DOCUMENT CONSEQUENCES • BUILD A NARRATIVE IN HER WORDS • LINK TO RIGHTS SUPRESSED/LIBERTY DENIED • FORMER PARTNERS? • OTHER OFFENSES? • ’

  47. Before? • Nigel Wolitter, 30 year old Nottinghamshire man • poured paint on machinery belong to partner’ family • Motive: To punish his partner for refusing to give him money for marijuana