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GEOLOGY-1010
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  1. GEOLOGY-1010 • INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: MARK BASKARAN • PHONE: 313-577-3262 • E-MAIL: BASKARAN@WAYNE.EDU • OFFICE HOURS: 10:30-11:30 AM-M,F

  2. Grading Policy – GEL-1010 • LECTURE AND LAB MUST BE SUCCESFULLY COMPLETED • FIRST QUIZ. • GRADING • EXAM #1=20% • EXAM #2=20% • FINAL =30% • LAB =30% COURSE GRADES WILL BE CURVED • EXAM WILL BE MULTIPLE CHOICE AND TRUE/FALSE • QUESTIONS • EXAM MATERIAL FROM LECTURE NOTES, DO NOT MISS LECTURES • MAKE UP EXAM ………………..ONLY ON VALID EXCUSES

  3. Lab OPEN LAB (MAY ATTEND ANYTIME WHEN LAB IS OPEN) • INTEGRAL AND ESSENTIAL PART OF GEL 1010 COURSE • 30% OF FINAL GRADE – HELPS TO IMPROVE THE GRADE • LAB WILL START IN THE SECOND WEEK • MUST HAVE PHOTO ID • LABORATORY OUTLINE (BOOKSTORE OR MARWELL’S) MUST BE BROUGHT TO THE LAB • 20 – QUESTION QUIZ AT THE END OF EACH LAB (COMPUTER TESTING; QUIZ WILL CONSTITUTE THE GRADE FOR THE LAB)

  4. *~ 3 HOURS – ALLOW 3.5 HOURS TO COMPLETE LAB AND QUIZ*NO FOOD/DRINK ALLOWED; NO VISITORS ALLOWED*NO LAB MAKEUPS*LOWEST LAB WILL BE DROPPED.TOTAL 13 LABS – 1 DROP = 12 LABS4 OR MORE LABS MISSING-MUST DROP THE COURSEUNOFFICIAL WITHDRAWAL WILL BE GIVEN*LAB STARTS ON TUESDAYS- ENDS THURSDAY- MUST BE TAKEN THE SAME WEEK

  5. TIPS FOR SUCCESS • READ OUTLINE PRIOR COMING TO THE LAB • REVIEW MATERIAL IN TEXT BOOK RELATED TO THE LAB TOPIC • FILL IN OUTLINE CAREFULLY AS IT WILL BE YOUR STUDY GUIDE FOR THE QUIZ • ASK LAB INSTRUCTOR IF THE LAB MATERIAL IS UNCLEAR.

  6. Methods of Science • DATA GATHERING • HYPOTHESES ( LOGICAL AND TENTATIVE EXPLANATION ) ( > 50 HYPOTHESIS FOR ICE AGES ) • THEORIES ( GENERALLY ACCEPTED EXPLANATIONS) • LAWS, SCIENTIFIC ( THEORY THAT MEETS RIGOROUS TESTING) • GEOLOGICAL MODELS

  7. Scientific Theory • MASSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS OF INDIA’S DECCAN PLATEAU- • --------CLOUD OF V. ASH & GAS – COOLING – DECLINE IN VEGETATION – PLANT EATING ANIMALS WOULD HAVE DIED – MEAT EATERS DEATH • METEORITE IMPACT THEORY - ~ 10 KM DIAMETER CRASHED INTO THE EARTH – DUST VEIL & SMOKES FROM FIRE BLOCKED SUNLIGHT

  8. Extinction of Dinosaurs • 65 M YEARS AGO, 75% OF ALL FORMS OF LIFE VANISHED ( LAND & WATER – DWELLING) • EPEDEMIC DISEASES ELIMINATED DINOSAUR POPULATION? • EGG STEALING- MAMMALS RAVAGED DINOSAUR’S NESTS? • OCEANS BECAME LETHALLY SALTY – WHY SOME MARINE ORGANISMS SURVIVED? • DRASTIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE? • SHIFT IN PLANET’S PROTECTIVE MAGNETIC FIELD?( ALLOWING HARMFUL RADIATION)

  9. EVIDENCES • *1” – CLAYEY LAYER ~ 65 M YEAR • CLAY CONTAINS IRIDIUM ( ABUNDANT IN METEORITE; RARE IN INT. ROCKS) ( ABOVE THE LAYER ~ ONE FOURTH AS MANY SPECIES) • *PRESENCE OF TEKTITES ( GLASSY SPHERES ) IN SEDIMENT LAYERS AROUND THE WORLD ( SUPER HEATED ROCKS AT IMPACT SITE HURLED INTO THE AIR IN A MOLTEN STATE) • *FOSSILS ABOVE & BELOW THIS 1”

  10. Evidences – contd. • *HIGH CONC. OF CARBON SOOT WITHIN THE IRIDIUM LAYER ( EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WILD FIRE)*WHITISH FOSSIL – RICH LAYER AT THE BOTTOM OF A CORE (ODP) IN ATLANTIC OCEAN – OVERLAIN BY A THIN GRAY – GREEN LAYER OF IMPACT DEBRIS TOPPED BY AN IRON – RICH BAND – FOSSIL POOR LAYER ABOVE.*IMPACT SITE – YUCATAN’S CHICXULUB CRATER 300 KM DIAMETER.

  11. Big Bang Theory • TIMING ESTIMATED USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE • CURRENT POSITIONS & SPEED OF VISIBLE GALAXIES AS THEY MOVE FROM ONE ANOTHER • AFTER BIG BANG, UNIVERSE BEGAN TO EXPAND & COOL • FEW MINUTES AFTER BIG BANG, UNIVERSE COOLED BY ABOUT • ONLY PROTONS, NEUTRONS & ELECTRONS PRESENT • ATOMS (BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER) • ONLY WHEB UNIVERSE COOLED ~ 3000 DEG CENTIGRADE, • H, He – LIGHT ELEMENTS BEGAN TO EXIST

  12. Big Bang Theory

  13. Lecture OutlinesPhysical Geology, 10/e Plummer, McGeary & Carlson

  14. Introducing Geology Physical Geology 10/e, Chapter 1 Plummer et al.

  15. Geology in Today’s World • Geology - The scientific study of the Earth • Physical Geology is the study of Earth’s materials, changes of the surface and interior of the Earth, and the forces that cause those changes • Practical Aspects of Geology • Natural resources • Geological hazards • Environmental protection

  16. Practical Aspects of Geology • Natural Resources • All manufactured objects depend on Earth’s resources • Localized concentrations of useful geological resources are mined or extracted • If it can’t be grown, it must be mined • Most resources are limited in quantity and non-renewable

  17. Damage from Northridge (CA) earthquake (1/17/1994) apartment-15 died

  18. Resource Extraction and Environmental Protection • Coal Mining • Careless mining can release acids into groundwater • Petroleum Resources • Removal, transportation and waste disposal can damage the environment Alaska pipeline • Dwindling resources can encourage disregard for • ecological damage caused by extraction activities

  19. Geologic Hazards • Earthquakes • Shaking can damage buildings and break utility lines (electric, gas, water, sewer) • Volcanoes • Ash flows and mudflows can overwhelm populated areas • Landslides, floods, and wave erosion

  20. Geologic Hazards • Earthquakes • Shaking can damage buildings and break utility lines (electric, gas, water, sewer) • Volcanoes • Ash flows and mudflows can overwhelm populated areas • Landslides, floods, and wave erosion

  21. Geologic Hazards • Earthquakes • Shaking can damage buildings and break utility lines (electric, gas, water, sewer) • Volcanoes • Ash flows and mudflows can overwhelm populated areas • Landslides, floods, and wave erosion

  22. Physical Geology Concepts • Earth’s Systems • Atmosphere • the gases that envelop the Earth • Hydrosphere (rivers, ocean, glaciers, lakes) • water on or near the Earth’s surface • Biosphere • all living or once-living materials • Geosphere • the solid rocky Earth

  23. Physical Geology Concepts • Earth’s Heat Engines • External (energy from the Sun) • Primary driver of atmospheric (weather) and hydrospheric circulation • Controls weathering of rocks at Earth’s surface • Internal (heat moving from hot interior to cooler exterior) • Primary driver of most geospheric phenomena (volcanism, magmatism, tectonism)

  24. Earth’s Interior • Compositional Layers • Crust (~3-70 km thick) • Very thin outer rocky shell of Earth • Continental crust - thicker and less dense • Oceanic crust - thinner and more dense • Mantle(~2900 km thick) • Hot solid that flows slowly over time; Fe-, Mg-, Si-rich minerals • Core(~3400 km radius) • Outer core - metallic liquid; mostly iron • Inner core - metallic solid; mostly iron

  25. Earth’s Interior • Mechanical Layers • Lithosphere(~100 km thick) • Rigid/brittle outer shell of Earth • Composed of both crust and uppermost mantle • Makes up Earth’s tectonic “plates” • Asthenosphere • Plastic (capable of flow) zone on which the lithosphere “floats”

  26. Theory of Plate Tectonics • Continental Drift Hypothesis (Alfred Wagner) • Originally proposed in early 20th century to explain the “fit of continents”, common rock types and fossils across ocean basins, etc. • Insufficient evidence found for driving mechanism; hypothesis initially rejected • Plate Tectonics Theory • Originally proposed in the late 1960s • Included new understanding of the seafloor and explanation of driving force • Describes lithosphere as being broken into plates that are in motion • Explains origin and locations of such things as volcanoes, fault zones and mountain belts

  27. Tectonic Plate Boundaries • Divergentboundaries • Plates move apart • Magma rises, cools and forms new lithosphere • Typically expressed as mid-oceanic ridges • Transformboundaries • Plates slide past one another • Fault zones and earthquakes mark boundary • San Andreas fault in California • Convergentboundaries • Plates move toward each other • Mountain belts and volcanoes common • Oceanic plates may sink into mantle along a subduction zone, typically marked by a deep ocean trench

  28. Tectonic Plate Boundaries • Divergentboundaries • Plates move apart • Magma rises, cools and forms new lithosphere • Typically expressed as mid-oceanic ridges • Transformboundaries • Plates slide past one another • Fault zones and earthquakes mark boundary • San Andreas fault in California • Convergentboundaries • Plates move toward each other • Mountain belts and volcanoes common • Oceanic plates may sink into mantle along a subduction zone, typically marked by a deep ocean trench

  29. Plate Tectonics-contd. • Top of a plate – consisting of oceanic crust, continental crust or a part of each • North American Plate is moving westward relative to Europe – Plate’s divergent boundary is along mid-oceanic ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean • Transform Boundary: San Andreas Fault in CA is an example – Earthquakes along the fault are a product of motion • Convergent Plate Boundary: Less dense, more buoyant continental plate will override the denser, oceanic plate

  30. Geologic Time • “Deep” Time • Most geologic processes occur gradually over millions of years • Changes typically imperceptible over the span of a human lifetime • Current best estimate for age of Earth is ~4.55 billion years • Geologic Time and the History of Life • Complex life forms became abundant ~544 million years ago • Reptiles became abundant ~230 million years ago • Dinosaurs became extinct (along with many other organisms) ~65 million years ago • Humans have been around for only ~ 3 million years • “Nothing hurries geology” Mark Twain

  31. A Map of Tectonic Plates

  32. A Map of the Pacific Ocean

  33. Plate Rifting and Divergence

  34. Divergent Zones

  35. Oceanic Plate Subduction

  36. Key Points • Physical Geology • Earth’s internal and external heat engines – driving factors • Divisions of Earth’s layers • Plate Tectonics – convergent, divergent, transform boundaries • Crust – classification • Age of the Earth and Universe • Factors causing earthquakes • Lithosphere • Asthenosphere