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1 Samuel

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  1. Foundational Book #6 1 Samuel

  2. The Book of 1 Samuel begins with the birth of Samuel which was perhaps around 1100 BC, and the book ends with the death of King Saul in the year 1011 BC • Time Covered • 90 years of Israel’s history • KEY WORD • King • KEY CHAPTER • Chapter 8 • KEY CHARACTERS • Samuel • Saul • David • This book provides the official account of the transition from the theocracy to the monarchy IMPORTANT DATA ON 1 SAMUEL

  3. Author of a book is uncertain • The text of this book does not identify the author • Some have held to Samuel as the author, but much is recorded after his death in 1 Samuel • Also, the books of 1 and 2 Samuel were originally one book, being divided into the present two books in the Third century BC • Others believe that Nathan and Gad may have been the authors (1 Chronicles 29:29) • If this is correct, then a date of about 975 BC would be attached to these books. • The Babylonian Talmud states “Samuel wrote the book that bears his name. • It is taught that Samuel wrote chapters 1-24 and Nathan and Gad wrote the rest of Samuel AUTHORSHIP AND DATE OF WRITING

  4. “Now appoint a king for us to judge us like all the nations.” But the thing was displeasing in the sight of Samuel when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” And Samuel prayed to the Lord. The Lord said to Samuel, “Listen to the voice of the people in regard to all that they say to you, for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me from being king over them” 1 Samuel 8:5-7 Key Verse

  5. Provide an official account of the ministries of Samuel during the time of transition • This was a time of move from the rule of the judges to the rule of the kings • A changeover between the theocracy and the monarchy • The transition involves three stages • From Eli to Samuel. • From Samuel to Saul. • From Saul to David Purpose OF THE book

  6. Although two books in our Old Testament are named after Samuel, he probably wrote neither Perhaps this is why in the Septuagint the books are named I Kings and II Kings III Kings and IV Kings are what we know as I and II Kings Interesting Facts

  7. The scroll of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles were probably to large to handle and was divided into two parts in the early days of the Septuagint • The Old Testament translated into Greek • The Hebrew text of Samuel was not separated into 2 books until the 15th century • This was in the first printed Hebrew Bible in Venice around 1516-1517 Why were the books Split

  8.  The average Torah Scroll weighs abound 20 to 25 pounds • The heaviest is about 50 pounds • There are some "minis" that weigh about five pounds • These small Torahs were usually written for Chassidic Rabbis • Older Torahs are usually larger and heavier. Why were the books Split

  9. Torah ScrollVellum scroll of the PentateuchAcquired by the Duke University Libraries in 1942

  10. Torah ScrollVellum scroll of the PentateuchAcquired by the Duke University Libraries in 1942 • The Torah Scroll contains the first five books of the Bible • In synagogue it is kept in a special ark  “Aron Ha-kodesh” and taken out for public reading of assigned portions on Mondays, Thursdays, Sabbaths and holidays

  11. Note here the special arrangement of the text of the Song of the Sea, representing the column of Israelites crossing the Sea of Reed on dry land, between two walls of water. (Exodus 14.22)

  12. Dead sea Scrolls The Great Isaiah Scroll from Qumran This is a fragment of 1 Samuel 11 from Qumran

  13. A Torah scroll consists of strips of parchment made of the skin of a kosher animal, prepared specifically for this purpose and sewn together  The words are hand written by a trained scribe , a Sofer, who uses special black ink and a quill and follows a strict set of guidelines from antiquity There are no punctuation or vocalization signs in the text, nor is there a record of the scribe’s name, date of completion or place Both ends of the scroll are wound around wooden rollers called “AtseiHayim” – Trees of Life. What is a scroll

  14. 1 & 2 Samuel, along with 1 & 2 Kings, form a continuous narrative devoted to recording the early years of the Hebrew monarchy Samuel was born around 1105 B.C. and died in 1015 B.C. During Samuel’s 90 years of life, he ministered in Israel between about 1067 B.C. and 1015 B.C. Interesting Facts

  15. He Was a prophet • He Was a priest • He Was a judge • Anointed Israel’s first two kings • Saul • David • Led Israel against the Philistines • Samuel appeared to Saul after he died when Saul visited the witch of Endor Interesting Facts About Sameul

  16. Samuel is Israel’s last judge and Israel’s first prophet • Samuel’s work begins very late in the times of the judges when Eli is the judge-priest • Just as Eli’s sons were evil, when Samuel was old, his sons proved to be unjust leaders, resulting in the people calling for a king to rule over them. Interesting Facts

  17. Samuel • Judge and Prophet 1:1-7:17 • Saul • First king of Israel 8:1-12:25 • Israel demands a king 8:1-22 • Saul’s early days as king 9:1-12:25 • Decline of Saul and the Rise of David 13:1-31:33 Basic Outline of 1 Samuel

  18. Priest • The tribe of Levi • Teachers of the Law • Sacrifices • Numbers 3 • Arbitrators of the Law • Key during the Theocracy • King • Line of David • 2 Samuel 7 • Prophet • No tribe • No line • Each man selected individually • Jeremiah 7 The three offices of Israel

  19. God allowed polygamy in the case of a wife’s being barren • This allowed a man name to be carried on • God never condoned polygamy but like divorce he allowed it to occur and did not bring an immediate punishment for this disobedience • However polygamy’s complication and unsavory results are apparent everywhere • Application • Just because something is allowed does not mean it is beneficial Polygamy

  20. When you enter the land which the Lord your God gives you, and you possess it and live in it, and you say, ‘I will set a king over me like all the nations who are around me,’ you shall surely set a king over you whom the Lord your God chooses, one from among your countrymen you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your countryman. Moreover, he shall not multiply horses for himself, nor shall he cause the people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, since the Lord has said to you, ‘You shall never again return that way.’ He shall not multiply wives for himself, or else his heart will turn away; nor shall he greatly increase silver and gold for himself. Deuteronomy 17:14-17

  21. Eli was a descendant of Ithamar, the fourth son of Aaron, who was High Priest in Shiloh when Samuel was born • Eli was the first to embodied the functions of High Priest and Judge • He Judged Israel for 40 years • He was a poor father • Both sons, Phineas and Hophini, took meat from sacrificial animals before they were dedicated to God and lay with women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle • God killed both the sons • Eli fell over backward and broke his neck when her heard the news of their death • God’s final judgment against Eli and his descendants came when Solomon removed Aabiathar as high priest and replaced him with Zadok - 1 Kings 2:35 Who was Eli

  22. Hannah is one of the most poignant characters in the Old Testament • Like several other women in the Bible, she was barren • People in ancient Israel believed that a large family was a blessing from God • Infertility, therefore, was a source of humiliation and shame • To make matters worse, her husband's other wife not only bore children but taunted Hannah mercilessly Hannah

  23. Once, at the house of the Lord in Shiloh, Hannah was praying so intently that her lips moved silently with the words she spoke to God in her heart • Eli the priest saw her and accused her of being drunk • She answered that she was praying, pouring out her soul to the Lord. Touched by her pain, • 1 Samuel 1:17 • Then Eli answered and said, “Go in peace; and may the God of Israel grant your petition that you have asked of Him.” • 1 Samuel 1:19 • Then they arose early in the morning and worshiped before the Lord, and returned again to their house in Ramah. And Elkanah had relations with Hannah his wife, and the Lord remembered her. • But Hannah had made a promise to God that if she bore a son, she would give him back for God's service • Hannah followed through on that promise • She handed her young child Samuel over to Eli for training as a priest • God blessed Hannah further for honoring her pledge to him • She bore three more sons and two daughters • Samuel grew up to become the last of Israel's judges, its first prophet, and counselor to its first two kings, Saul and David

  24. Born in Ramah of Ephraim • Several towns in Israel were named Ramah • Probably this Ramah was identified with the New Testament town of Arimathea and the modern town of Rentis • This was not the same Ramah in Joshua 18:25 as that Ramah was in the tribe of Benjamin Birth of Samuel

  25. Samuel was probably 2 to 3 years old when Hannah brought him to Eli 1 Samuel 1:26-28 She said, “Oh, my lord! As your soul lives, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you, praying to the Lord. For this boy I prayed, and the Lord has given me my petition which I asked of Him. So I have also dedicated him to the Lord; as long as he lives he is dedicated to the Lord.” And he worshiped the Lord there. Samuel brought to Eli

  26. Sons of Belial-1 Samuel 2:12 • Judges 19:22 • Now as they were making their hearts merry, behold, the men of the city, certain sons of Belial, beset the house round about, and beat at the door, and spake to the master of the house, the old man, saying, Bring forth the man that came into thine house, that we may know him. KJV • While they were celebrating, behold, the men of the city, certain worthless fellows, surrounded the house, pounding the door; and they spoke to the owner of the house, the old man, saying, “Bring out the man who came into your house that we may have relations with him.” NAS The sin of Eli’s Sons

  27. Used in the Old Testament to speak of Scoundrels • Worthless men who commit various acts of wickedness • Drunkeness-1 Samuel 1:16 • Hostility-1 Samuel 25:25 • Abuse of power – 1 Samuel 2:12 • Idolatry- Deuteronomy 13:13 • Rebelliousness- 1 Samuel 10:27 • Lying and perverse speech- Proverbs 6:12;19:28 • Sexual perversions- Judges 19:22 • The Jews even later used this term to refer to Satan • 2 Corinthians 6:15 • Or what harmony has Christ with Belial, or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? NAS • And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? KJV Sons of beliial

  28. The song of Hannah with references to the Lord’s anointed-2:1-10 • Samuel ministers before the Lord-2:11 • The sins of Eli’s sons-2:12-17 • Samuel ministers before the lord 2:11 • Eli Blesses Samuel’s parents-2:20-21a • Samuel grows in the Lord’s presence-2:21b • The sins of Eli’s sons-2:22-25 • Samuel grows in the Lord’s presence-2:36 • The oracle of the man of God, concluding with reference to the Lord’s annointed-2:27-36 Chiastic Structure of 1 Samuel 2

  29. Took place at Shiloh • Apparently the Ark was housed in some type of permanent structure 3:15 • Prophetic-Call-Narrative 3:1-21 • Similar to Exodus 3, Isaiah 6, Jeremiah 1, and other passages • Some have called it a auditory message dream theopany • This is because the Lord talks to Samuel at night The call of Samuel

  30. Samuel did not who was calling him • He answered “Here am I” • This answer was typical of a servant who hears and obeys the diving call • Genesis 22:1,11; Exodus 3:4; Isaiah 6:8 • Samuels openness to serving God would enable him to know the Lord in ways that Eli’s sons never could Samuels Calling

  31. As God continued to speak to Samuel through the years the Lord’s word would so captivate him that it became virtually impossible to distinguish it from Samuel’s own words 3:21-4:1 Samuel the priest would become God’s spokesmen 3:20 Samuels Calling

  32. The word he spoke to you • You hide from me • The Oath • You hide from me • The word he spoke to you Chiastic Structure of 3:17

  33. Just as Lord’s presence was with David, so the Lord was with Samuel -3:19 • All of Israel recognized this 3:20 • The phrase from Dan to Beersheba represent the Northern and Southern boundaries of the united kingdom under David and Solomon • This phrase is used frequently in the narratives about David- 2 Samuel 3:10:17:11;24:2,15 • That God let “none of his word’s fall” means that everything that Samuel said with divine authorization came true 3:19 3:19-4:1

  34. Absence of divine miracles- 3:1 • Eli’s fading power-3:2 • Three divine calls of Samuel-3:3-9 • A divine oracle to Samuel-3:10-15 • Elis’s request for Samuel's report-3:16-18 • Samuel’s growing stature-3:19a • Return to divine oracles-3:19b-4:1a Chiastic format of 3:1-4:1

  35. The Philistines are mentioned over 150 times in 1 and 2 Samuel • They are so entrenched and dominant in the coastal areas and the foothills of Canaan that eventually they gave their name to the entire land What was this name? • Palestine • The word itself derives from "Plesheth", a name that appears frequently in the Bible and has come into English as "Philistine” • Plesheth, (root palash) was a general term meaning rolling or migratory • This referred to the Philistine's invasion and conquest of the coast from the sea • The Philistines were not Arabs nor even Semites, they were most closely related to the ancient Greeks originating from Asia Minor • They did not speak Arabic • They had no connection, ethnic, linguistic or historical with Arabia or Arabs • The word Palestine, or Palestina, originally identified the region as "The Land of The Philistines” The Philistines

  36. The Ark Narratives 4:1-7:17

  37. Israel goes to battle with the Philistines at Ebenezer and is defeated •  In Deut. 28 there is a warning of cursing for disobedience • Israel’s routing at the hands of the Philistines is described in terms of a covenant curse • How had Israel broken the covenant? • In the context of 1 Samuel, the gluttony and sexual immorality of Hophni and Phinehas and Eli’s failure to restrain them was one cause for the defeat (3:12-13). Another reason was idolatry  The Battle 4:1-18

  38. The Israelites propose to bring the Ark of the Covenant, the presence of Yahweh, into the battle in order to be saved • The ark was there for the victory at Jericho so the people try to use it here as a good luck charm • The ark does not help • The Philistines win, take the ark of Yahweh and kill Hophni and Phinehas • Yahweh, the ark, is being led away captive by a foreign army, and his priests lie slain on the battlefield • When Eli hears about the capture of the ark he falls over backwards and breaks his neck • God’s judgment has fallen on Eli for his sins. The Battle 4:1-18

  39. Eli’s daughter-in-law, the wife of Phinehas, is pregnant • When she hears the report of the Ark being taken and her family dead she goes into premature labor and gives birth • She dies as a result of the birth, but before she does she names the boy “Ichabod” because the “glory has departed from Israel” • The ark, the presence of God, has gone into exile (galah) •  This word for “departure” is a word used often for the exile of Israel and Judah  ICHABOD 4:19-22

  40. The Philistines place the Ark in Dagon’s temple before Dagon • As if to say Yahweh is bowing in defeat to worship Dagon • The next day the Philistines enter the temple to see their god lying prostrate before the Ark Dagon is worshipping Yahweh • The Philistines have to pick their god up • When the Philistines enter the temple early the third morning they see Dagon has fallen to pieces • His head and hands are cut off, and he lies on the ground defeated before Yahweh • In the ancient world head and hands were battlefield trophies The ark among the philistines

  41. Major cities of the Philistines • Gath • Ashdod • Ekron • Askelon • Gaza The philisintes Smitten

  42. The Ark was kept as Ashdod and the people were smitten with emerods • Emerods were swelling, tumors, or boils • Josephus suggests that the problem came from dysentery • Martin Luther and many commentators since then have held that the disease was the Bubonic Plauge The philisintes Smitten

  43. The Ark was carried to Gath • Cursed with emerods in their “secret parts” • The Ark was then sent to Ekron • Many died from the emerods there The philistines Smitten

  44. After seven months, they decide to send the ark back • The priests warn them not to send it back “empty” -6:3 • This echoes the language of Yahweh’s promise to Moses concerning the Exodus, “And I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians; and it shall be, when you go, that you shall not go empty-handed (Ex 3:21).” • They decide to send it back with five golden emerods and five golden rats because the Philistines have five major cities • They send the ark back, and it comes to Beth Shemesh The philisitnes return the ark

  45. The Ark is brought to Beth Shemesh • The closest city to Beth Shemesh • This was a Levitical city • They offered burnt offerings • In the happiness and gladness of seeing the return of the ark, the people pried into it beneath the wagon cover • Instead of covering it up again, as a sacred utensil, they let it remain exposed to common inspection • Wishing it to be seen, in order that all might enjoy the triumph of seeing offerings presented to it, and gratify curiosity with the sight of the sacred shrine • This was the offense of those Israelites, Levites, as well as common people, who had treated the ark with less reverence than the Philistines themselves  The ark returns 6:13-21

  46. 50,070 men seem in excess of the number who would live in a 11th century BC city such at Bethshemesh • No where else in Scripture does the Hebrew write the numbers in the way they are here • Neither of the customary ways of writing a large number give rise to the suspicion that the text was inadvertently garbled in the course of transmission • Textual error are demonstrable for 1 Samuel more that any other book the Old Testament • A better rendering of the text would be • “He struck down the people for seven days, men for five days, a thousand men” Were 50,000 men killed?

  47. Kirath-Jearim was fortress city taken from the Gibeonites • Western part of the boundary line between Judah and Benjamin • Kirath-Jearim has tentatively been identified Deir el-Azar, ten miles North of Jerusalem • The ark remained here for 20 years • The twenty years may be figurative • May mean half a generation • It was from here that David transported the ark to Jerusalem-2 Samuel 6:2-3 The ark goes to Kirath-Jearim

  48. The Ark did not return to Shiloh • Shiloh was probably destroyed during the war with the Philistines • This is suggested by Psalm 78:60; Jeremiah 7:12,14;26:6-9 Why did the ark go to Kirath-Jearim?