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Evidenţe istorice ale lui Isus. Josephus Mara bar Sarapion Talmudul. Josephus, Testimonium Flavianum.

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Evidenţe istorice ale lui Isus

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eviden e istorice ale lui isus

Evidenţe istorice ale lui Isus


Mara bar Sarapion


josephus testimonium flavianum
Josephus, Testimonium Flavianum
  • About this time came Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it is appropriate to call him a man. For he was a performer of paradoxical feats, a teacher of people who accept the unusual with pleasure, and he won over many of the Jews and also many Greeks. He was the Christ. When Pilate, upon the accusation of the first men amongst us, condemned him to be crucified, those who had formerly loved him did not cease to follow him, for he appeared to them on the third day, living again, as the divine prophets foretold, along with a myriad of other marvelous things concerning him. And the tribe of the Christians, so named after him, has not disappeared to this day. Antichitati iudaice 18.3.3 (93 d.Hr.)
testimonium flavianum
Testimonium Flavianum
  • O problemă discutabilă
  • In the second, brief mention, Josephus calls James "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ“ (Antichitati iudaice 20.9.1). The great majority of scholars consider this shorter reference to Jesus to be substantially authentic, Hegesippus, in a work produced around 165-175, also has an account of James that has irreconcilable conflicts with Josephus regarding the death of James the Just (cca. 70 CE vsJospehus' cca. 64).
mara bar sarapion
Mara bar Sarapion
  • Mara a fost un stoic siriac
  • În timp ce era întemnitat de catre romani, a scris o scrisoare fiului sau cu urmatorul continut:
  • For what benefit did the Athenians obtain by putting Socrates to death, seeing that they received as retribution for it famine and pestilence? Or the people of Samos by the burning of Pythagoras, seeing that in one hour the whole of their country was covered with sand? Or the Jews by the murder of their Wise King, seeing that from that very time their kingdom was driven away from them? For with justice did God grant a recompense to the wisdom of all three of them. For the Athenians died by famine; and the people of Samos were covered by the sea without remedy; and the Jews, brought to desolation and expelled from their kingdom, are driven away into every land. Nay, Socrates did “not” die, because of Plato; nor yet Pythagoras, because of the statue of Hera; nor yet the Wise King, because of the new laws which he enacted.
  • Exista referiri rare la Isus în Talmudul babilonian
  • El apare cu numele de"Yeshu," "Yeshu ha-Notzri," "benSatda," si"benPandera."
  • Aceste referinte datează probabil din vremea rabinilor tanaiti (70 to 200)
  • O astfel de referinta are în vedere procesul si condamnarea la moarte a lui Isus si a ucenicilor Sai
talmudul sanhedrin 43a
Talmudul – Sanhedrin 43a
  • It is taught: On the eve of Passover they hung Yeshu and the crier went forth for forty days beforehand declaring that "[Yeshu] is going to be stoned for practicing witchcraft, for enticing and leading Israel astray. Anyone who knows something to clear him should come forth and exonerate him." But no one had anything exonerating for him and they hung him on the eve of Passover. Ulla said: Would one think that we should look for exonerating evidence for him? He was an enticer and God said (Deuteronomy 13:9) "Show him no pity or compassion, and do not shield him." Yeshu was different because he was close to the government.
diferen e
  • It is taught: Yeshu had five disciples - Matai, Nekai, Netzer, Buni, and Todah. They brought Matai [before the judges]. He said to them: Will Matai be killed? It is written (Psalm 42:2) "When [=Matai] shall (I) come and appear before God." They said to him: Yes, Matai will be killed as it is written (Psalm 41:5) "When [=Matai] shall (he) die and his name perish." They brought Nekai. He said to them: Will Nekai be killed? It is written (Exodus 23:7) "The innocent [=Naki] and the righteous you shall not slay." They said to him: Yes, Nekai will be killed as it is written (Psalm 10:8) "In secret places he slay the innocent [=Naki]." They brought Netzer. He said to them: Will Netzer be killed? It is written (Isaiah 11:1) "A branch [=Netzer] shall spring up from his roots." They said to him: Yes, Netzer will be killed as it is written (Isaiah 14:19) "You are cast forth out of your grave like an abominable branch [=Netzer]." They brought Buni. He said to them: Will Buni be killed? It is written (Exodus 4:22) "My son [=Beni], my firstborn, Israel." They said to him: Yes, Buni will be killed as it is written (Exodus 4:23) "Behold, I slay your son [=Bincha] your firstborn." They brought Todah. He said to them: Will Todah be killed? It is written (Psalm 100:1) "A Psalm for thanksgiving [=Todah]." They said to him: Yes, Todah will be killed as it is written (Psalm 50:23) "Whoever sacrifices thanksgiving [=Todah] honors me."