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LOGIC 102 lesson 03. Sh. Safdar Razi. 3. Perspective 3. Negation of the subject ( salb ) or the predicative (‘ udool ) Is of two types: Attained (muhassalla) Transferred (ma’doola). 1. Attained/Exists. Arabic: muhassalla Definition: Points to something that exists.

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logic 102 lesson 03

LOGIC 102lesson 03

Sh. Safdar Razi

3 perspective 3
3. Perspective 3
  • Negation of the subject (salb) or the predicative (‘udool)
  • Is of two types:
  • Attained (muhassalla)
  • Transferred (ma’doola)
1 attained exists
1. Attained/Exists
  • Arabic:muhassalla
  • Definition:
    • Points to something that exists.
      • Example: Human, Ahmad, lion.
    • Or points to a characteristic or adjective that exists.
      • Example: scholar, just, gracious, kind, is learning.
    • This means that both subject and predicate, whether in the positive or negative form, MUST exist in reality.
    • Here, either both parts of the syllogism are attained (exist), or one exists while the other is transferred.
continued
Continued…
  • Also, if the subject and the predicate are not transferred (ma’dool) then both sides are muhassalla.
  • No particles of negation of the transferred syllogism are used (namely: “other than” (ghayr) or “non-/no” (laa).
  • Particle of Negation (salb):
    • “NOT” (laysa).
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Continued…
  • Examples:
    • Ali (as) is an Imam. (both sides exist)
    • Laysa Zayd aalim = Zayd is NOT a scholar.
    • Zayd is different than a scholar.
      • Subject: exists
      • Predicate: is transferred to something different (ma’dool)
    • The air is pure.
    • The air is not pure.
2 transferred
2. Transferred
  • Arabic:ma’doola
  • Definition:
    • Here the subject or the predicate, together or independently, are transferred to something else.
    • Q: How is this done?A: Through the introduction of the negative particle of the transferred syllogism such that they become part of the subject or predicate.Example: Non-human, non-scholar, other than a visionary.
q what do you mean
Q: What do you mean?
  • A: This means I want to transfer the subject or the predicate to something else, other than itself.
  • This is done using a particle that implies a negative but in reality functions to move us to something other than that subject or predicate. In Arabic, this is done using “laa” or “ghayra”
q does this apply to both parts
Q: Does this apply to both parts?
  • Answer:
    • This does not have to apply to both parts of your syllogism.
    • The subject can be transferred to something else, or the predicate, or just one of them within the one syllogism.
examples
Examples
  • Udool of Subject with:
    • +ve predicate:Every non-scholars (transferred) can have an opinion(attained/exist).
    • -ve predicate: Other than success is not (laysa) success.
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Continued…
  • Udool of Predicate with:
    • +ve subject:Zayd is different than a scholar.
    • -ve subject:Zayd is not (laysa) different from (ghayr) other men.
examples1
Examples
  • Udool/transfer of BOTH subject and predicate:
    • People Other than Ahmad are other than engineers.
    • Non-physicians have other types of knowledge.
    • Other than Ali were other than charitable in the Prophet’s mosque.
important question
Important Question
  • Q: What is the difference between a syllogism that has a predicate that is transferred and a negative attained predicate?
answer
Answer

The difference is found in two areas:

  • In the meaning generated.
  • In the expression itself
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Continued…
  • In the meaning generated.Q: What is meant by the negative attained?A: The negation or removal of the attribute or action that is predicated.
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Continued…
  • Q: What is meant by the predicate that is transferred (seemingly negated)?A: Here the negation or transfer of the predicate in the transferred (ma’doola) is part of the predicate. And so, you are really predicating the that which is not the predicate as a whole upon the subject.
continued5
Continued…

2. In the expression itself:

  • In the negative (saaliba) attained (muhassalla):the connection within it (I.e. the link or raabitta/nisba) comes after the particle of negation (laysa) so that it signifies the negation of the predicate.
continued6
Continued…
  • As for the transferred (ma’doola) predicate:The raabita/connection within it is before the particle of negation so that it signifies the predication of the negation.