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Biology 221 Anatomy & Physiology II. TOPIC 12 Reproductive System. Chapter 28 pp. 1071-1107. E. Lathrop-Davis / E. Gorski / S. Kabrhel. Male Anatomy Overview. Consists of: Testes Ducts epididymus ductus (vas) deferens ejaculatory duct urethra Penis Accessory glands

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Topic 12 reproductive system

Biology 221

Anatomy & Physiology II

TOPIC 12 Reproductive System

Chapter 28

pp. 1071-1107

E. Lathrop-Davis / E. Gorski / S. Kabrhel

Male anatomy overview
Male Anatomy Overview

Consists of:

  • Testes

  • Ducts

    • epididymus

    • ductus (vas) deferens

    • ejaculatory duct

    • urethra

  • Penis

  • Accessory glands

    • seminal vesicles

    • prostate

    • bulblurethral (Cowper’s)

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male testis
Male: Testis

  • Located in scrotum

    • temperature regulation (keeps them at about 33oC)

  • Structure of testis

    • seminiferous tubules

    • interstitial cells (cells of Leydig)

    • rete testis

Fig. 28.3, p. 1073

Male testis seminiferous tubules
Male: Testis – Seminiferous Tubules

  • Produce sperm

  • Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells (5) – support spermatocytes and spermatozoa, and produce inhibin (inhibits FSH/LH secretion)

Male testis interstitial cells and rete testis
Male: Testis – Interstitial Cells and Rete Testis

  • Interstitial cells (between seminiferous tubules) – produce testosterone (promotes sperm formation)

  • Rete testis

    • first collection area

    • network of tubules on posterior side

    • Lead to epididymus

Fig. 28.3, p. 1073

Male testis coverings
Male: Testis Coverings

  • tunica vaginalis (TV) – connective tissue, derived from peritoneum

  • tunica albuginea (TA) – fibrous capsule

  • septa (S; singular = septum) – extensions of tunica albuginea; divide testis into sections

Fig. 28.3, p. 1073

Male duct system
Male: Duct System

  • Epididymis – site of sperm maturation

  • Ductus (vas) deferens – carries sperm away from testis to ejaculatory duct

  • Ejaculatory Duct – extends from where ducts from seminal vesicles join ductus deferens to urethra

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male urethra
Male: Urethra

  • Prostatic urethra – runs through prostate gland

  • Membranous urethra – runs from prostate to penis

  • Penile urethra – runs through penis

Fig. 28.4, p. 1075

Male penis
Male: Penis

  • Designed to deliver sperm into vagina of female

  • Erectile tissues

    • Corpora cavernosa (CC)

    • Corpus spongiosum (CS) – surrounds urethra

Fig. 28.4, p. 1075

Male accessory glands semen
Male Accessory Glands & Semen

  • Semen = sperm plus products of the accessory glands that support and nourish the sperm + sperm

  • Glands (overview)

    • Seminal vesicles (SV)

    • Prostate gland

    • Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male accessory glands seminal vesicles
Male Accessory Glands: Seminal Vesicles

  • produce about 60% of all semen

  • alkaline fluid – neutralizes acidity of vagina

  • fructose – nourishes sperm

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male accessory glands prostate
Male Accessory Glands: Prostate

  • encircles urethra below bladder

  • produces about 30% of semen

  • products play a role in activating and protecting sperm

  • citrate nourishes sperm

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male accessory gland bulbourethral glands
Male Accessory Gland:Bulbourethral Glands

  • Lie near base of penis

  • Produce mucus that neutralizes acidity of traces of urine in urethra

Fig. 28.1, p. 1071

Male reproductive physiology sperm production overview
Male Reproductive Physiology: Sperm Production Overview

  • Sperm (and ova) are produce by meiotic cell division

  • Sperm production involves two stages:

    • Spermatogenesis – in which diploid cells divide by meiotic cell division to yield haploid gametes

    • Spermiogenesis – maturation of spermatids into functional spermatozoa (sperm)

Comparison of mitosis meiosis

Single division

2 divisions

  • Meiosis I – reduces number of chromosomes by half

  • Meiosis II – separates chromatids into 4 separate haploid cells

Produces 2 genetically identical diploid daughter cells

Produces 4 genetically distinct haploid daughter cells

Comparison of Mitosis & Meiosis



Fig. 28.6, p. 1078

Male spermiogenesis
Male: Spermiogenesis

Development of:

  • Flagellum for movement

  • Acrosome (contains digestive enzymes for egg penetration)

  • Midpiece (mitochondria -energy for movement)

Fig. 28.9, p. 1082

Male sustentacular cells
Male: Sustentacular Cells

  • Also called Sertoli cells

  • Surround and support developing spermatocytes and spermatids

  • Extend from basal lamina to lumen of tubule

Fig. 28.8, p. 1081

Male sustentacular cells1
Male: Sustentacular Cells

  • Form blood-testis barrier

    • cells joined by tight junctions - prevents contact between developing sperm and blood

    • produce fluid different from surrounding interstitial fluid (higher in androgens, amino acids, potassium)

    • important because sperm are first produced after immune system has developed sense of “self”

      • sperm would be recognized as foreign if contacted blood

Male hormonal regulation of function
Male: Hormonal Regulation of Function

Hypothalamus secretes GnRH

(Gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

Stimulates anterior pituitary to release



  • indirectly stimulates stimulates testosterone secretion testosterone

  • stimulates spermatogenesis secretion

  • stimulates inhibin secretion

    (inhibits FSH and LH production)

Fig. 28.10, p. 1085

Male testosterone
Male: Testosterone


  • spermatogenesis

  • development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics (e.g., facial hair, large muscles, etc.) and male reproductive organs

  • development of sexual drive in CNS

  • protein synthesis in muscle cells and growth of muscle and bone

Fig. 28.10, p. 1085

Female Anatomy Overview

Consists of:

  • Ovaries

  • Fallopian (uterine) tubes (oviducts)

  • Uterus

  • Vagina

  • Mammary glands

  • Supporting structures

Fig. 28.11, p. 1086

Female ovaries
Female: Ovaries

  • Located lateral to uterus

  • Ligaments anchor ovary to other structures

    • ovarian ligament – anchors ovary to uterus

    • broad ligament – parietal peritoneal tissue

      • suspensory ligament – anchors ovary to lateral pelvic wall

      • mesovarium – holds ovary between ovarian and suspensory ligaments

  • Contains oocytes surrounded by follicles

  • Release secondary oocytes into pelvic cavity

Fig. 28.14, p. 1089

Female uterine fallopian tubes
Female: Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes

  • Carry oocyte toward uterus

  • Fimbriae (F) immediately pick up secondary oocyte released from ovary and transfer it into UT

  • Smooth muscle and cilia of simple columnar epithelium help move oocyte toward uterus

Fig. 28.14, p. 1089

Female uterus
Female: Uterus

  • Normal site of implantation of fertilized ovum and development of fetus

  • Layers

    • endometrium (inner layer)

    • myometrium (smooth muscle)

    • perimetrium (covering of visceral peritoneum)

Fig. 28.14, p. 1089

Female uterus endometrium
Female: Uterus – Endometrium

  • Consists of two sublayers

    • stratum functionalis (f) – undergoes cyclical changes every month

    • stratum basalis (b) – overlies myometrium (m) and forms a new stratum functionalis

  • Forms maternal part of placenta

Female myometrium perimetrium
Female: Myometrium & Perimetrium

  • Myometrium

    • consists of smooth muscle

    • contracts to expel sloughed off endometrial tissue or fetus

  • Perimetrium(serosa)

    • peritoneal covering

Fig. 28.14, p. 1089

Female cervix and vagina
Female: Cervix and Vagina

  • Cervix – narrow “neck” of uterus

  • Vagina

    • “birth canal”

    • lined with stratified squamous epithelium

Fig. 28.14, p. 1089

Mammary glands
Mammary Glands

  • Modified sweat glands

  • Only functional in females

  • Produce milk to nourish newborn

  • Hormonal control

    • prolactin - stimulates milk production in lactating female

    • oxytocin - stimulates milk ejection

Fig. 28.17, p. 1093

Female ovarian cycle overview
Female: Ovarian Cycle Overview

  • Consists of two phases: Follicular (1-6 in diagram) & Luteal (7-9 in diagram)

Fig. 28.20, p. 1097

Follicular phase 1 st to 14 th day
Follicular Phase – 1st to 14th Day

  • Several primordial follicles develop into primary follicles

  • Primary follicle develops into secondary follicle

    • zona pellucida (thick, transparent membrane around oocyte)

    • begins to produce estrogens

    • antrum (opening around oocyte) forms

  • Secondary follicle (when antrum is present) becomes Vesicular follicle (Graafian follicle)

    • corona radiata forms (cells surrounding oocyte)

    • primary oocyte divides (finishes meiosis I) to form 1 secondary oocyte and 1 polar body

Fig. 28.12, p. 1087

Fig. 28.19, p. 1095

Ovulation and luteal phase 14th to 28th day
Ovulation and Luteal Phase – 14th to 28th day

  • Ovulation = release of secondary oocyte (arrested in metaphase of meiosis II) from ovary

  • Luteal Phase – 14th to 28th day

    • cells of ruptured Graafian follicle become corpus luteum which begins to secrete progesterone and continue to secrete estrogen

    • corpus luteum degenerates in about 10 days if pregnancy does not occur then becomes corpus albicans

Fig. 28.12, p. 1087

Ovarian cycle hormonal control
Ovarian Cycle: Hormonal Control

  • Hypothalamus secretes GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)

  • GnRH stimulates release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (lutenizing hormone) from anterior pituitary

    • FSH (& LH) stimulate follicle growth

Fig. 28.21, p. 1098

Ovarian cycle hormonal control1
Ovarian Cycle: Hormonal Control

  • Enlarged follicles begin to secrete estrogens

  • Rising estrogen levels initially inhibitrelease of FSH & LH from anterior pituitary, but also stimulate it to produce and accumulate these hormones (i.e., accumulate FSH and LH)

Fig. 28.21, p. 1098

Ovarian cycle hormonal control2
Ovarian Cycle: Hormonal Control

  • Once estrogen levels reach critical level, exert positive feedback on hypothalamus & pituitary

    • result is sudden surge of LH

  • Surge of LH results in:

    • completion of meiosis I

    • release of secondary oocyte from Graafian follicle (i.e., ovulation)

  • Ovulation results from positive feedback influence of estrogen on secretion of LH

Fig. 28.21, p. 1098

Ovarian cycle hormonal control3
Ovarian Cycle: Hormonal Control

  • Surge of LH causes ruptured follicle to become corpus luteum and stimulates production of estrogens and progestins from it

  • Increased progesterone and estrogen cause decline in LH; corpus luteum is less stimulated and eventually becomes corpus albicans

Fig. 28.21, p. 1098

Uterine menstrual cycle
Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle

  • Cyclical changes in the endometrium that prepare it for implantation of a fertilized ovum.

  • Three phases: menstrual, proliferative, secretory

Fig. 28.15, p. 1091

Fig. 28.22, p. 1100

Menstrual phase days 1 5
Menstrual Phase (Days 1-5)

  • Stratum functionalis is shed (passes through vagina as menstrual flow)

  • This is a response to declining estrogen levels

Proliferative phase days 6 14
Proliferative Phase (Days 6-14)

  • Stratum functionalis rebuilt by stratum basale in response to stimulation from ovarian estrogens

  • Endometrial glands become larger

  • Estrogen induces formation of additional progesterone receptors

  • Increased blood supply

Secretory phase days 15 28
Secretory Phase (Days 15-28)

  • Endometrium continues to develop in response to ovarian progesterone

  • Secretion of nutrient substances begins

  • Toward end, decline in progesterone results in declining condition of blood vessels in stratum functionalis, eventually resulting in its loss (start of next menstrual phase)

Correlation of hormones with cycles
Correlation of Hormones With Cycles

  • During menstrual phase, all hormones are at their lowest levels

  • During proliferative phase, estrogens secreted by ovary cause proliferation of endrometrial cells such that stratum functionalis is rebuilt from stratum basale

  • During secretory phase,

    • high levels of progesterone continue to stimulate development of stratum functionalis

    • Levels of estrogen decrease somewhat

Fig. 28.22

Disorders of reproduction stds
Disorders of Reproduction: STDs

  • Gonorrhea – infection by Neisseria gonnorrhoeae bacteria; causes inflammation of the urethra and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females

  • Syphilis – infection by Treponema pallidum bacteria

  • Chlamydia – infection by Chlamydia bacteria; causes pelvic inflammatory disease, urethritis, among other things

  • Genital warts – infection by human papillomavirus (HPV); causes warts in genital area; increases probability of developing cervical or penile cancer

  • Genital herpes – infection by herpes simplex virus; causes lesions on genital area; treated with acyclovir

Other disorders of reproduction
Other Disorders of Reproduction

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - severe inflammation of lower peritoneal cavity generally caused by STDs

  • Ectopic pregnancy – implantation of embryo outside uterus (e.g., in oviduct or pelvic cavity)

  • Hypertrophy of prostate – enlargement of the prostate;impinges on prostate urethra making urination difficult and increasing the likelihood of bladder infection; common in elderly males

  • Breast cancer - cancer of the mammary gland; strikes 1:8 women

Important developmental milestones
Important Developmental Milestones

  • 8 weeks

    • ossification begins

    • blood cells begin to be formed by liver

    • all systems present (at least as basic plan)

  • 9-12 weeks

    • bone marrow begins to form blood cells

  • 26 weeks

    • surfactant production begins in lung

  • 38-42 weeks

    • birth

      • if less than 38 weeks, systems not as developed

      • if more than 42 weeks, placenta starts to degrade