Lecture 15 lithostratigraphy
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Lecture 15 Lithostratigraphy. Lithostratigraphy Biostratigraphy Seismic stratigraphy. Magnetostratigraphy Geochemistry stable istopes radiometric dating. Stratigraphy: Putting together the whole picture (processes and history). I. “Facies” (Steno, 1669) “aspect” or “appearance” .

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Stratigraphy putting together the whole picture processes and history

Lithostratigraphy

Biostratigraphy

Seismic stratigraphy

Magnetostratigraphy

Geochemistry

stable istopes

radiometric dating

Stratigraphy: Putting together the whole picture (processes and history)


I. “Facies”

(Steno, 1669) “aspect” or “appearance”

Can be genetic (fluvial facies) or descriptive (sandstone facies)

Lithofacies = a consistent lithologic character within a formation. E.g. an evaporite lithofacies

Walther’s law (1894) = facies that occur in conformable vertical successions of strata also occur in laterally adjacent environments.





Ii accumulation
II. Accumulation

  • Base level. Above sealevel, preservation is the exception rather than the rule

  • Sediment traps

    • tectonic

    • basin subsidence

    • sea-level rise


Iii gaps
III. Gaps

  • Diastems = obscure, small gaps in the record. Barrell (1917)

  • Unconformities = larger gaps in the record.


Iv correlation
IV. Correlation

  • Demonstrating the equivalence or correspondence of geographically separated parts of a geologic unit


Old (pre-1930) and new interpretations of units in the Devonian Catskills. Layer-cake versus concept of facies change.



V sequences
V. Sequences Everglades

  • Major unconformities representing Earth’s broad tectonic or eustatic events.


Sloss (1963) Everglades


Vi time time rock and rock units

Time (geochronologic) units Everglades

Eon

Era

Period

Epoch

Age

VI. Time, Time-Rock and Rock Units

  • Time-rock chronostratigraphic) units

    • Eonothem

    • Erathem

    • System

    • Series

    • Stage

    • Zone


Examples

Time units Everglades

Phanerozoic eon

Cenozoic era

Quaternary period

Holocene epoch

Wisconsinan age

Examples

  • Time-rock units

    • Eonothem

    • Erathem

    • System

    • Series

    • Stage


Rock (lithostratigraphic) units Everglades

  • Supergroup

  • Group

  • FORMATION a mappable unit with distinctive lithic characteristics

  • Member

  • Bed


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