chemical bonds names and formulas n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chemical Bonds, Names and Formulas PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chemical Bonds, Names and Formulas

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 78

Chemical Bonds, Names and Formulas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chemical Bonds, Names and Formulas. Unit # 6. Big Ideas. OBJECTIVES: Distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds. Distinguish between ionic, covalent and metallic bonds Define cation and anion, and relate them to metal and nonmetal. Name molecules and compounds. What is a bond?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chemical Bonds, Names and Formulas' - bryant


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
big ideas
Big Ideas
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds.
    • Distinguish between ionic, covalent and metallic bonds
    • Define cation and anion, and relate them to metal and nonmetal.
    • Name molecules and compounds
what is a bond
What is a bond?
  • The valence electron of one atom is attracted to the nucleus of another atom
  • Reasons Why?
    • Mutual attraction
    • To achieve a full valence shell
    • To have lower Kinetic Energy
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • When a pair of electrons are “shared” between two atoms
  • This will occur between atoms that have similar electronegativity values
  • Non-metal bonded to non-metal
covalent bonds1
Covalent Bonds
  • Single bond – one pair of electrons are shared (2 electrons)
  • Double bond – two pairs of electrons are shared (4 electrons)
  • Triple bond – three pairs of electrons are shared (6 electrons)
ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • An unequal sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms
  • Between a metal and a non-metal
  • We usually say “ the metal will give up the electron and the non-metal will take the electron
  • Atoms that have a electronegativity difference higher than 1.7
metallic bonds
Metallic Bonds
  • Bonds between 2 metals
  • Both metals will give up electrons and then share the “sea of electrons”
determine the bond type
Determine the bond type
  • H2O
  • HCl
  • NaCl
  • KCr
  • KBr
determine the bond type1
Determine the bond type
  • H2O covalent
  • HCl covalent
  • NaCl ionic
  • KCr metallic
  • KBr Ionic
atoms and ions
Atoms and ions
  • Atoms are electrically neutral.
  • Same number of protons and electrons.
  • Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge (positive or negative)
  • Different numbers of protons and electrons.
  • Only electrons can move.
  • Gain or lose electrons.
anion
Anion
  • A negative ion.
  • Has gained electrons.
  • Nonmetals can gain electrons.
  • Charge is written as a superscript on the right.

Has gained one electron (-ide is new ending= fluoride)

F1-

O2-

Gained two electrons (oxide)

slide13

Cations

  • Positive ions.
  • Formed by losing electrons.
  • More protons than electrons.
  • Metals can lose electrons

Has lost one electron (no name change for positive ions)

K1+

Ca2+

Has lost two electrons

back to new material

Back to New Material

Now let’s bond the old material to the new material

two types of compounds

Two types of Compounds

Ionic and molecular

ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds
  • Ionic compounds- from joining metal and nonmetal - they are electrically neutral
  • Metal and polyatomic ion
  • Ionic Bonds
ionic compounds1
Ionic Compounds
  • This formula represents not a molecule, but a formula unit
  • The smallest whole number ratio of atoms in an ionic compound.
  • Ions surround each other so you can’t say which is hooked to which.
molecules and molecular compounds
Molecules and Molecular Compounds

Molecular compounds

  • Made of molecules.
  • Made by joining nonmetal atoms together into molecules.
  • Covalent bonds
molecules and molecular compounds1
Molecules and Molecular Compounds
  • Molecule- smallest electrically neutral unit, still has properties of the substance
  • Made from only nonmetals
  • Can be from one element- O2
  • Can make a compound- CO2
two types of compounds1
Two Types of Compounds

Ionic

Molecular

Smallest piece

Formula Unit

Molecule

Types of elements

Metal and Nonmetal

Nonmetals

Solid, liquid or gas

State

solid

Bond Type

Ionic

Covalent

chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas
  • Shows the kind and number of atoms in the smallest piece of a substance.
  • Molecular formula- number and kinds of atoms in a molecule.
  • CO2
  • C6H12O6
chemical formulas1
Chemical Formulas
  • More than one atom? –use a subscript (H2O)
  • There are 7 diatomic elements
  • Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Bromine (Br2), and Iodine (I2)
  • Remember: “Br I N Cl H O F”
charges on ions
Charges on ions
  • Elements in the same group have similar properties.
  • Including the charge when they are ions
  • Remember Group 1 forms +1 ions
slide24

1+

2+

3+

3-

2-

1-

what about the others
What about the others?
  • Many transition metals have more than one common ionic charge
  • We use roman numerals in naming
more big ideas
More Big ideas
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Name ions based on their oxidation state
    • Define a polyatomic ion, and give the names and formulas of the most common polyatomic ions.
naming ions
Naming ions
  • Two methods if more than one charge is possible:
    • 1. Stock system – uses roman numerals in parenthesis to indicate the numerical value
    • 2. Classical method – uses root word with suffixes (-ous, -ic)
      • Does not give true value
naming ions1
Naming ions
  • We will use the Stock system.
  • Cation- if the charge is always the same (Group A) just write the name of the metal.
  • Transition metals can have more than one type of charge.
  • Indicate the charge with roman numerals in parenthesis
name these
Name these
  • Na1+
  • Ca2+
  • Al3+
  • Fe3+
  • Fe2+
  • Pb2+
  • Li1+
write formulas for these
Write Formulas for these
  • Potassium ion
  • Magnesium ion
  • Copper (II) ion
  • Chromium (VI) ion
  • Barium ion
  • Mercury (II) ion
naming anions
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluorine
naming anions1
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluorin
naming anions2
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluori
naming anions3
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluor
naming anions4
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluori
naming anions5
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluorid
naming anions6
Naming Anions
  • Anions are always the same charge
  • Change the element ending to – ide
  • F1- Fluoride
name these1
Name these
  • Cl1-
  • N3-
  • Br1-
  • O2-
  • Ga3+
write these
Write these
  • Sulfide ion
  • iodide ion
  • phosphide ion
  • Strontium ion
exceptions
Exceptions:
  • Some of the transition metals have only one ionic charge:
    • Do not use roman numerals for these:
    • Silver is always 1+ (Ag1+)
    • Cadmium and Zinc are always 2+ (Cd2+ and Zn2+)
polyatomic ions
Polyatomic ions
  • Groups of atoms that stay together and have a charge.
  • Acetate C2H3O21-
  • Nitrate NO31-
  • Nitrite NO21-
  • Hydroxide OH1- and Cyanide CN1-
  • Permanganate MnO41-
polyatomic ions1
Sulfate SO42-

Sulfite SO32-

Carbonate CO32-

Chromate CrO42-

Dichromate Cr2O72-

Phosphate PO43-

Phosphite PO33-

Ammonium NH41+

Polyatomic ions
big idea
Big Idea
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary ionic and ternary ionic compounds.
naming binary ionic compounds
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Binary Compounds - 2 elements.
  • Ionic - a cation and an anion.
  • To write the names, just name the two ions.
  • Easy with Representative elements (which are Group A elements)
  • NaCl = Na1+Cl1- = sodium chloride
  • MgBr2 = Mg2+Br1-= magnesium bromide
naming binary ionic compounds1
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
  • The problem comes with the transition metals.
  • Need to figure out their charges.
  • The compound must be neutral.
  • same number of + and – charges.
  • Use the anion to determine the charge on the positive ion.
naming binary ionic compounds2
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Write the name of CuO
  • Need the charge of Cu
  • O is 2-
  • copper must be 2+
  • Copper (II) oxide
  • Name CoCl3
  • Cl is 1- and there are three of them = 3-
  • Co must be 3+ Cobalt (III) chloride
naming binary ionic compounds3
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Write the name of Cu2S.
  • Since S is 2-, the Cu2 must be 2+, so each one is 1+.
  • copper (I) sulfide
  • Fe2O3
  • Each O is 2- 3 x -2 = -6
  • 2 Fe must = 6+, so each is 3+.
  • iron (III) oxide
naming binary ionic compounds4
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Write the names of the following
  • KCl
  • Na3N
  • CrN
  • Sc3P2
  • PbO
  • PbO2
  • Na2Se
ternary ionic compounds
Ternary Ionic Compounds
  • These will have polyatomic ions
  • At least three elements
  • name the ions
  • NaNO3
  • CaSO4
  • CuSO3
  • (NH4)2O
ternary ionic compounds1
Ternary Ionic Compounds
  • LiCN
  • Fe(OH)3
  • (NH4)2CO3
  • NiPO4
writing formulas
Writing Formulas
  • The charges have to add up to zero.
  • Get charges on pieces.
  • Cations from name on table.
  • Anions from table or polyatomic.
  • Balance the charges by adding subscripts.
  • Put polyatomics in parenthesis.
writing formulas1
Writing Formulas
  • Write the formula for calcium chloride.
  • Calcium is Ca2+
  • Chloride is Cl1-
  • Ca2+ Cl1- would have a 1+ charge.
  • Need another Cl1-
  • Ca2+ Cl21- (use criss-cross method)
write the formulas for these
Write the formulas for these
  • Lithium sulfide
  • tin (II) oxide
  • tin (IV) oxide
  • Magnesium fluoride
  • Copper (II) sulfate
  • Iron (III) phosphide
  • gallium nitrate
  • Iron (III) sulfide
write the formulas for these1
Write the formulas for these
  • Ammonium chloride
  • ammonium sulfide
  • barium nitrate
things to look for
Things to look for
  • If cations have ( ), the number in parenthesis is their charge.
  • If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic)
  • If anion ends in -ate or -ite it is polyatomic
section 6 5 molecular compounds and acids
Section 6.5Molecular Compounds and Acids
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary molecular compounds.
section 6 5 molecular compounds and acids1
Section 6.5Molecular Compounds and Acids
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Name and write formulas for common acids.
molecular compounds
Molecular compounds
  • made of just nonmetals
  • smallest piece is a molecule
  • can’t be held together because of opposite charges.
  • can’t use charges to figure out how many of each atom
molecular are easier
Molecular are easier!
  • Ionic compounds use charges to determine how many of each.
    • Have to figure out charges.
    • Have to figure out numbers.
  • Molecular compounds name tellsyou the number of atoms.
  • Uses prefixes to tell you the number
prefixes table 6 5 p 159
Prefixes (Table 6.5, p.159)
  • 1 = mono-
  • 2 = di-
  • 3 = tri-
  • 4 = tetra-
  • 5 = penta-
  • 6 = hexa-
  • 7 = hepta-
  • 8 = octa-
prefixes
Prefixes
  • 9 = nona-
  • 10 = deca-
  • To write the name, write two words:
prefixes1
Prefixes
  • 9 = nona-
  • 10 = deca-
  • To write the name, write two words:

Prefix

name

Prefix

name

-ide

prefixes2
Prefixes
  • 9 = nona-
  • 10 = deca-
  • To write the name, write two words:
  • One exception is we don’t write mono- if there is only one of the first element.

Prefix

name

Prefix

name

-ide

prefixes3
Prefixes
  • 9 = nona-
  • 10 = deca-
  • To write the name, write two words:
  • One exception is we don’t write mono- if there is only one of the first element.
  • No double vowels when writing names (oa oo)

Prefix

name

Prefix

name

-ide

name these2
Name These
  • N2O
  • NO2
  • Cl2O7
  • CBr4
  • CO2
  • BaCl2
write formulas for these1
Write formulas for these
  • diphosphorus pentoxide
  • tetraiodine nonoxide
  • sulfur hexafluoride
  • nitrogen trioxide
  • carbon tetrahydride
  • phosphorus trifluoride
  • aluminum chloride
acids

Acids

Writing names and Formulas

acids1
Acids
  • Compounds that give off hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
  • Must have H in them.
  • will always be some H next to an anion.
  • The anion determines the name.
naming acids
Naming acids
  • If the anion attached to hydrogen ends in -ide, put the prefix hydro- and change -ide to -ic acid
  • HCl - hydrogen ion and chloride ion
  • hydrochloric acid
  • H2S hydrogen ion and sulfide ion
  • hydrosulfuric acid
naming acids1
Naming Acids
  • If the anion has oxygen in it, then it ends in -ate of -ite
  • change the suffix -ate to -ic acid (use no prefix)
  • HNO3 Hydrogen and nitrate ions
  • Nitric acid
  • change the suffix -ite to -ous acid
  • HNO2 Hydrogen and nitrite ions
  • Nitrous acid
name these3
Name these
  • HF
  • H3P
  • H2SO4
  • H2SO3
  • HCN
  • H2CrO4
writing acid formulas
Writing Acid Formulas
  • Hydrogen will always be first
  • name will tell you the anion
  • make the charges cancel out.
  • Starts with hydro?- no oxygen, -ide
  • no hydro?, -ate comes from -ic, -ite comes from -ous
write formulas for these2
Write formulas for these
  • hydroiodic acid
  • acetic acid
  • carbonic acid
  • phosphorous acid
  • hydrobromic acid
section 6 6 summary of naming and formula writing
Section 6.6Summary of Naming and Formula Writing
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Use the flowchart in Figure 6.21 to write the name of a compound when given its chemical formula.
section 6 6 summary of naming and formula writing1
Section 6.6Summary of Naming and Formula Writing
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Use the flowchart in Figure 6.23 to write a chemical formula when given the name of a compound.
helpful to remember
Helpful to remember...

1. In an ionic compound, the net ionic charge is zero (criss-cross method)

2. An -ide ending generally indicates a binary compound

3. An -ite or -ate ending means there is a polyatomic ion that has oxygen

4. Prefixes generally mean molecular; they show the number of each atom

helpful to remember1
Helpful to remember...

5. A Roman numeral after the name of a cation shows the ionic charge of the cation

  • Use the handout sheets provided by your teacher!
summary of naming and formula writing
Summary of Naming and Formula Writing
  • For naming, follow the flowchart- Fig. 6.21, page 161
  • For writing formulas, follow the flowchart from Fig. 6.23, p. 162