c h a p t e r 2 The Analyst as a Project Manager
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE • PROJECT PLANNING • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS • SYSTEM DESIGN • IMPLEMENTATION • SUPPORT / PRODUCTION & MAINTENANCE *
Planning Phase • Define the problem • Sketch out a schedule • Determine feasibility • Confirm other resources: staff, $$, management support etc.
FEASIBILITY • TECHNICAL: • Assess Hardware, Software, Technical, $$$ Resources • UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS VALUE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS: • Financial Considerations: • Tangible Benefits: Cost reduction, increased operational efficiency, cost/benifit • NPV, Beak even, payback method, ROI, NPV, cash flow etc., • Non-Financial / Strategic Considerations • Better service, speed, quality, implementation time etc. • Score carding, Portfolio Analysis • Can we and do we want to Implement Change?
Analysis Phase • What problem is the organization trying to solve with IS? • What are the symptoms / causes? • Gather INFO & determine CFS/KSF for IS: • Small #, easily identifiable goals • Shaped by manager, customers, competitors, users etc. • What / who / why requires information? • Define system requirements • e.g. processing requirements • Prototype to help define requirements • Generate alternatives: buy, build outsource etc. • Compare alternatives and feasibility • Make recommendations with management
Design Phase • Design network of Hardware O/S, etc. • Design application architecture • Large portion of the project • Design user interface (prototype?) • Design system interfaces/middleware • Design and integrate DBMS • Prototype if further details needed • Design and integrate system controls / security • As the project is planned it may cause you to loop back and go to the analysis mode to gather more information • Ripple effect
Implementation Phase • The phase where the new system is programmed • Construct software components • Verify and test • Convert existing data • Train users • Convert to the new system
TESTING • UNIT TESTING: Tests Each Unit Separately • SYSTEM TESTING: Do Modules Function Together as planned? • Acceptance Testing • Alpha Testing: limited rollout. • Beta Testing: more widespread rollout. • E.g., Windows 2000 *
Support/maintain/upgrade Phase • Maintain (bug fix) • Enhancements/features/upgrades • Support for the users
A few more terms • Proof of concept prototype • A document containing business benefits and system capabilities of the projects • Helps to define the scope of a new project • Context diagram: • a graphical diagram showing the scope of a system. Who / what / why / what for uses of info • MS project • Work breakdown structure • Gantt Chart • Pert/CPM (Project evaluation and review technique / critical path method)