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Full-Range Leadership. Captain Ball Operations Flight Commander AFROTC Det 755, UPR-RP. Overview. The Concept of Full-Range Leadership (FRL) Elements of the Full-Range Leadership (FRL) Model Applying Full-Range Leadership (FRL). The Concept of FRL.

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Full-Range Leadership


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    1. Full-Range Leadership Captain Ball Operations Flight Commander AFROTC Det 755, UPR-RP

    2. Overview • The Concept of Full-Range Leadership (FRL) • Elements of the Full-Range Leadership (FRL) Model • Applying Full-Range Leadership (FRL)

    3. The Concept of FRL • FRL involves a wide variety of behaviors • Leader adjusts style based on variables: • Situation • needs of the subordinate • FRL developed from long line of theories • Early theories focused on particular leaders • Encouraged people to mimic traits • Study Biographies, etc • Limited utility because traits might not fit your personality • FRL is broader Leadership environment far too dynamic for trait-based theories

    4. The Concept of FRL • Particularly helpful in the military • FRL good for dynamic environments • Illustrates behaviors needed to accomplish mission • Goal is to understand yourself • Leadership and personality are dependent • Think in terms of Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership (recognize behaviors in others) • Visualize the behaviors with the Full-Range Leadership Model (FRLM)

    5. Full Range Leadership Model Effectiveness Activity

    6. Elements of the FRL Model • There are three main elements of the FRL Model • Laissez-faire • Transactional • Transformational • Dynamic progression through elements • Represents an increasing impact on performance • A range of leadership activity and effectiveness

    7. The FRL Model Effectiveness Activity

    8. Laissez-Faire (LF) Hands-Off Leadership • Represented by absence of action or abdication of command at times • The leader tends to: • Be disconnected from mission • Avoid making decisions • Fail to follow up • Show a lack of control • Creates a confusing/chaotic environment • This behavior should be avoided This is not an appropriate leadership behavior in the Air Force

    9. Laissez-Faire (LF) • Charles I of England • Saddam Hussein BBC History Ultimately mission success is jeopardized when leaders don’t accomplish the tasks they are supposed to accomplish!

    10. The FRL Model Effectiveness Activity

    11. Transactional Leadership • Focus is more on day-to-day workings rather than inspiration of subordinates • Contract or exchange between leader and subordinates • Two methods • Management by Exception • Contingent Reward

    12. Management by Exception (MBE) • Focus is less on contractual relationship and more on correcting deviations from standards • Corrections are more reactive than CR • Only works with well-developed or trained followers • Two forms of MBE • Active • Passive

    13. Management by Exception • MBE-Active (MBE-A) • Leader constantly monitors performance • Focus is more on mistakes and failures • Necessary at times but usually not effective • Prone to micromanagement

    14. Management by Exception (MBE) • MBE-Passive (MBE-P) • Most reactionary form of MBE (no monitoring) • Leader waits for things to go wrong (“If it’s not broken, don’t fix it”) • Constantly putting out fires • Reluctant reaction • May jeopardize the mission

    15. Contingent Reward (CR) • Typical of the everyday interactions at work • Goal-directed • Accomplish the task and receive a reward • Rewards can be tangible and less tangible • Time off, recognition, and praise • Understanding motivation is critical for using CR (If it doesn’t motivate, it isn’t a reward) • Directive or Coaching • “You will accomplish this task or stay late until it’s done.” • “If we all work together to accomplish the mission, we can have the weekend off.”

    16. Contingent Reward (CR) • Technique for Leader: • Set goals and explain expectations • Define levels of authority and responsibility for accomplishing tasks • Awards...both positive negative Shaku Zulu Find out what motivates people...

    17. The FRL Model Effectiveness Activity

    18. Transformational Leadership • Focus becomes motivating/inspiring followers, e.g. molding them into effective followers • Four types of transformational leadership • Individual Consideration (IC) • Intellectual Stimulation (IS) • Inspirational Motivation (IM) • Idealized Influence (II)

    19. Individual Consideration (IC) • Aimed specifically at subordinate development • Helps others identify and develop strengths • The leader promotes self-development • Two-way discussion is encouraged King, Military Leader Ruled 434-453 AD

    20. Intellectual Stimulation (IS) • Leader stimulates creative thinking • Questions established procedures • Pushes subordinates to think about new solutions • Must be willing to accept risk and failure • Improved ownership of the process increases performance What are some barriers to implementing IS behaviors?

    21. Inspirational Motivation (IM) • Leaders inspire and motivate subordinates • Articulation of vision and expectations is key • “Spoken word” used here • Ldr creates a positive environment • Subordinates gain confidence, and have a sense of purpose • Important for people to have a sense of mission • Must know where they fit into the bigger picture

    22. A man does not have himself killed for a few half-pence a day or for a petty distinction. You must speak to the soul to electrify the man. -- Napoleon Bonaparte

    23. Idealized Influence (II) • Leader is a role model • Actions and attributes are important • Actions align with Core Values • Attributes drive subordinates to emulate leader • Dedication to mission • Persistence • Courage • Sacrifice

    24. Applying FRL • FRL is NOT NECESSARILY a continuum from “bad” to “good” • Different circumstances require different behaviors • You might utilize several behaviors in one day or at the same time • Blending and emphasizing behaviors is critical to success

    25. The FRL Model

    26. Case Study/Quiz • Ike: Countdown to D-Day, 1:25 - 8:30 • Identify Ike’s leadership behaviors used on both Gen Patton and his own staff members • Write the style and examples on a sheet of paper

    27. Summary • The Concept of Full-Range Leadership (FRL) • Elements of the FRL Model • Applying FRL

    28. Backup