American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783 Taxation without RepresentationBoston MassacreBoston Tea PartyUnalienable RightsBattles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and YorktownDeclaration of IndependenceArticles of Confederation Tea Kidd 4/2/12
1776 • *Adoption of the Declaration of Independence • *Main Author: Thomas Jefferson • *Committee Included: Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston • *“Common Sense” • Written by: Thomas Paine
Causes of the American Revolution • Proclamation of 1763 • Stamp Act • Intolerable Acts • Mercantilism • Lack of representation in Congress • British economic policies following the French and Indian War
Proclamation of 1763 • *British Parliament law; colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, *Britain wanted a buffer zone between the colonists and the Native Americans, but the colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio River Valley
Stamp Act, 1765 • Required all legal documents and papers have an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid. • British used this to generate revenue to help cover the cost of the French and Indian War; • colonists reacted by rioting through groups such as the Sons of Liberty; • Stamp Act Congress meets in October, 1765, to take action and ask Parliament to repeal the act
Mercantilism • A system by which a nation increases its wealth and power by obtaining from its colonies gold, silver, and other raw materials. • It includes a favorable balance of trade. • The colonies became a source of raw materials for the mother country (England.) • The colonies are expected to be the purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country. • Belief that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the mother country
British reaction to the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for • Restructured Massachusetts government by taking away local control • Troops were quartered in Boston and British officials accused of crimes were sent to England or Canada for trial • Colonists reacted by boycotting British goods • First Continental Congress is formed, September, 1774
Taxation without Representation • Since the formation of the colonies, the colonists had set up their own legislative assemblies. • Colonists were unhappy about Britain’s insistence on the supremacy of Parliament (taxation). • The debate turned into one regarding representation in Britain’s law-making body (Parliament). • Britain argued that the colonies had “virtual representation.”
Abigail Adams • Wife of John Adams • Served as John Adams’ confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress, when John and others were considering a declaration of independence. • Abigail reminded him to “remember the ladies”; take care of the women who could not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice. • Advocate for women’s rights.
John Adams • Lawyer and politician • Defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre • A member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts) • Strong supporter of independence • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence
Wentworth Cheswell • African American Patriot • Like Paul Revere, he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community the impending British invasion • Served in the Continental Army • Fought at the Battle of Saratoga
Sam Adams • American Patriot • Played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution • Including: Sons of Liberty, organized opposition to the Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre • Member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts) • Cousin to John Adams
Mercy Otis Warren • Wife of a Massachusetts Patriot • Anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause
James Armistead • *Slave in Virginia • *Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. • *Posed as a double agent, forger and servant at British headquarters. • *He moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette • *Contributed to the American victory at Yorktown.
Benjamin Franklin • *A member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence. • *Spent most of the time during the American Revolution in France. • *He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and returned in 1785. • *He negotiated the alliance with France for support after the victory at Saratoga. • *Member of the committee that negotiated the terms for the Treaty of Paris in 1783 that ended the war.
Bernardo de’ Galvez • *Spanish nobleman • *Became governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana (January 1777) • *protected American ships in the port of New Orleans • *helped transport war supplies • *took up arms to fight the British and protect Louisiana
Crispus Attucks • African American male • Unemployed dockworker in Boston, MA • Became the first casualty (first to die) of the American Revolution • Shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770
King George III • *King of England during the Revolutionary Era • *Feared the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. • *To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance. • George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign.
HaymSolomon • Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America • Played an important role in financing the American Revolution • Arrested by the British as a spy • Used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops • Helped British prisoners escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert the British Army • Became a broker to the French consul and paymaster to French troops in the American Revolution
PatrickHenry • Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses • Spoke against the Stamp Act • Famous quote, “Give me liberty, or give me death!” • During the American Revolution he served in the Continental Army
ThomasJefferson • Virginian • Early leader in the American Revolution • Delegate to the Constinental Congress in Philadelphia in 1776 • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence • Chief author of the Declaration of Independence
Marquis de Lafayette • *French aristocrat who joined Washington and his troops at Valley Forge, PA • *Played a leading role in both the American and French Revolutions • *Respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and a constitutional government • *Commanded forces under George Washington as a major-general in the Continental Army
Thomas Paine • Propagandist • Journalist • In January, 1776, published a pamphlet, “Common Sense” • Persuaded many Americans to join the Patriot cause.
George Washington • *Virginian • *surveyor, planter • *a soldier in the French and Indian War • *a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses • *commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
Issues Surrounding Important Events of the American Revolution • Declaring Independence • Writing the Articles of Confederation • Battles of Lexington and Concord • Battle of Saratoga • Battle of Yorktown • Enduring the winter at Valley Forge • Signing the Treaty of Paris 1783
Declaration of Independence • Reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests/demands, “dissolve the political bands” with Britain, provided philosophy for the establishment of the new nation • “…all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness” • Listed grievances against the King of England • Written by Thomas Jefferson • July 4, 1776 • Second Continental Congress; Philadelphia
Writing of the Articles of Confederation • Occurred at the Second Continental Congress • Created a new form of government for the independent colonies • Included one branch – a Congress • Each state had one vote • Created a very weak government with no executive
Major Battles of the American Revolution • Lexington and Concord: Shot ‘heard round the world; first battles of the American Revolution; April 19, 1775 • Saratoga: turning point of the war; France joined the colonists after this victory, tipping the scales in their favor • Yorktown: surrender of Cornwallis to the British CSY
Enduring the Winter at Valley Forge • Winter, 1777 • After suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777 • Outbreak of small pox • Martha Washington came to help care for the men • The men were trained by Frederick von Steuben to become a more professional army rather than militias • Thomas Paine wrote “American Crisis” to encourage the men to stay the course and follow through with the revolution to the end
Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War and recognized American independence • Great Britain gave up almost all of its land claims in North America • Boundaries extended to Canada in the north, the Mississippi River in the west, and Florida in the South
Colonial Grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution • Grievance in Declaration of Independence • Constitution • Taxation without representation • All states have representation in Congress, which sets taxes • King has absolute power • Congress has the power to override Presidential veto • Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King • 1st Amendment – Freedom of Speech • Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops • 3rd Amendment – No quartering of Troops • allowed homes to be searched without warrants • 4th Amendment – No unwarranted search & seizure • No trial by jury of peers • 6th amendment—Speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury • 7th amendment—Right of trial by jury
Unalienable Rights • Fundamental rights, or natural rights, guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. • In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson said these are the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
Civil Disobedience • *The concept of refusing to follow laws within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or a nation when a person considers the laws unjust.*Refusing to follow laws considered to be unlawful and/or unconstitutional. • *Examples include boycotts, protests, refusal to pay taxes • *Boston Tea Party is an example of civil disobedience.
Different Points of View of Interest Groups During the American Revolution • Loyalists – these were colonists who remained loyal to the British monarchy and did not feel taxation was a reason to declare independence or break away from the mother country.
Different Points of View of Interest Groups During the American Revolution • Patriots were colonists who favored breaking away from Great Britain and becoming an independent country
John Paul Jones • Founder of the United States Navy • Led raids on British vessels during the American Revolution • During a fight with a British vessel he was told to surrender. Instead, Jones said, “I have not yet begun to fight” and was able to defeat the attacking British ship.
Boston Massacre • Engraving of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere • March 5, 1770 • Event in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of unarmed citizens of Boston • Killed five • This engraving was used as propaganda to encourage patriotic sympathies and support for American Independence • Paul Rever, a silversmith and engraver, was also a member of the Boston Sons of Liberty
Yankee Doodle • *Song sung by British military to mock the unorganized colonial “Yankees” who served in the French and Indian War with British soldiers. • *The meaning of the song implies that the Americans are so “simple” they think simply sticking a feather in a cap would make them fashion leaders.
French and Indian War • *Fighting between the British and the French for control of North America. • *Allies of the French were the Native Americans, or Indians. • *Broke out in the Ohio River Valley in 1756. Throughout the world it was known as the Seven Years’ War • *Ben Franklin suggested that the colonies join together to fight against the French in the Albany Plan of Union.*This was the first attempt to unify the colonies • *French and Indians were defeated. • * British became in debt because of the war and taxed the colonists as a result.