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從閱讀到寫作: 談語言的內化. 陳超明 實踐大學應外系講座教授. 前言. 高職英文學習的多元性與有限性: task-oriented or linguistic competence? reading or other skills? tests or communication 英文讀本的使用: 單字與文法教學 語意與文化教學 閱讀策略與思考訓練 聽講或是口語訓練 寫作訓練. 語言學習策略. 認知學習:分析、說明、練習、熟讀 溝通教學:語用、內容導向、情境、互動啟發、工作導向 認知與溝通互用? 課程時數 班級大小

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從閱讀到寫作:談語言的內化

陳超明

實踐大學應外系講座教授

全國高職應外科教師研習

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前言
  • 高職英文學習的多元性與有限性:
    • task-oriented or linguistic competence?
    • reading or other skills?
    • tests or communication
  • 英文讀本的使用:
    • 單字與文法教學
    • 語意與文化教學
    • 閱讀策略與思考訓練
    • 聽講或是口語訓練
    • 寫作訓練

全國高職應外科教師研習

slide3
語言學習策略
  • 認知學習:分析、說明、練習、熟讀
  • 溝通教學:語用、內容導向、情境、互動啟發、工作導向
  • 認知與溝通互用?
    • 課程時數
    • 班級大小
    • 評量方式:紙筆測驗or其他評量方式?

全國高職應外科教師研習

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應外科的英文教學任務
  • 英語文知識
    • 基礎單字、語法、自學方法
  • 語言內化能力
    • 從學習到使用
    • 提供內化的途徑
    • 加速內化的過程
      • 以寫作能力為例

全國高職應外科教師研習

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閱讀教學:語言的內化過程
  • 字彙與語法的學習。
  • 閱讀策略與文章結構的學習。
  • 語言思考模式的學習。
  • 文化意涵的學習。

以寫作模式或語用思考來進行閱讀教學

全國高職應外科教師研習

internalizing language
什麼是語言學習內化?Internalizing Language
  • 認知學習的一部分
  • 從練習到使用or 從使用到語言轉化
  • 使用語言vs. 學習語言
  • 內在語言與外在語言
    • Inner speech (submersion) vs outer speech (read aloud: immerson)
  • 語法結構的轉化?

全國高職應外科教師研習

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內化如何形成?
  • No one would have believed at the end of the nineteenth century that Planet Earth was being watched by beings more intelligent than humankind, who regarded our planet with envy and were drawing up plans against us.
    • 傳統認知學習──推衍的過程:語法學習、用字、時態
    • 內化:資料收集、歸納、推理認知、形成規範、轉化使用

全國高職應外科教師研習

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No one would have believed that …

  • No one would have admitted that …
  • No one would have slept in class …
  • No one would have eaten deep fried chicken breast …

全國高職應外科教師研習

more examples how to internalize grammar
More examples: How to internalize grammar?
  • I (A. am B. is C. are D. be) writing to invite you to…
  • On the horizon (A. lies B. lie C. lying D. lied) the huge ball of the sun, red and motionless.

全國高職應外科教師研習

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閱讀與寫作的內化關係
  • 閱讀的習慣:文法閱讀與語意閱讀
  • 寫作的習慣:造句、翻譯、段落寫作
  • 以寫作的心態閱讀
  • 以閱讀的習慣寫作

全國高職應外科教師研習

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文法與句型的閱讀方式
  • 困難句型(長句、多重含意的句子、複雜文法結構的句子)
  • 五大基本句型 (S+Vi, S+Vi+SC, S+Vt+O, S+Vt+O+Oc, S+Vt+O+O)
  • 解句的技巧(常用的句型)

S+( )+V

Ving (Ved) . . . , S+V

With +N+ (Ving or Ved) . . . , S+V

S+V . . . , Ving (Ved)

“ . . . , ” says Sb; Sb says, “ . . . ”

S + V (listed verbs) + that +(noun clause)

Adv clause, Main clause (or Main clause + adv. clause)

S, adj clause, V

倒裝句(sentence inversion) (adv +v + s)

  • 段落結構與句型安排
    • complex sentences--simple sentences--complex or compound sentences
    • particular--general--particular
  • 文章的結構

(Title, Introduction, Body, Conclusion)

(General and particular)

(details and anecdotes)

  • 全文閱讀:略讀(skimming); 掃描(scanning);精讀(close reading)

全國高職應外科教師研習

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閱讀教學與寫作思考:教甚麼?
  • 修辭與文章風格:
    • Word choice, word order, sentence variety
  • 文句轉折及段落轉折:
    • sentence & paragraph transitions
  • 文意與邏輯思維:
    • context, logics, meaning

全國高職應外科教師研習

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Word Choice and Sentence Structure: example #1TwilightI couldn’t stop myself from / peeking occasionally / through the screen of my hair / at the strange boy / next to me. / During the whole class, / he never relaxed his stiff position / on the edge of his chair, / sitting as far from me as possible. / I could see his hand on his left leg / was clenched into a fist, / tendons standing out / under his pale skin. / This, too, he never relaxed. / He had the long sleeves of his white shirt / pushed up to his elbows, / and his forearm was / surprisingly / hard and muscular / beneath his light skin. / He wasn’t nearly as slight as he’d looked / next to his burly brother./ (我忍不住,/ 有時偷窺,/ 透過頭髮的屏障,/ 看著奇異的男孩,/ 坐在我旁邊。/ 整堂課,/ 他沒有放鬆僵硬的姿勢,/ 坐在椅子邊緣,/ 做得離我遠遠的。/ 我可以看到他放在左腿上的手,/ 握緊拳頭,/ 肌肉突出,/ 從其蒼白的皮膚下。/ 這,他也沒有放鬆。/ 他將白襯衫的長袖,/ 推到手肘上,/ 他的前臂,/ 令人驚訝的,/ 堅硬、強壯有肌肉,/ 在淺色的皮膚下。/ 他沒有看起來那麼纖細,/ 坐在他粗壯的哥哥旁邊。)(

全國高職應外科教師研習

writing sample
Writing sample

In this paper, I will focus on the pleasure of love, representing that love involves a process mixing imagination and intoxication. Love needs to wait and for people to expect.

全國高職應外科教師研習

example 2
Example #2

Harry Potter, who does not know that he is a wizard, gets a strange letter from an owl on his eleventh birthday. From that day on, everything changes. Harry will play quidditch on a flying broomstick, wear a cloak of invisibility, make friends with a giant, and even help hatch a dragon. In the wizard school, however, he finds not only friends, aerial sports, and magic around every corner, but a great destiny that has been waiting for him—if he can survive an encounter with Voldermort, the most wicked wizard.

-word order, sentence variety, transition

全國高職應外科教師研習

example 3
Example #3

In so many ways, cyberspace is like the real world. Some people look for information, play games, and share hobby ideas. Others buy and sell things. Still others look for friendship, or even love.

--paragraph structure (parallelism)

全國高職應外科教師研習

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寫作原則的閱讀手法一
  • Word Choice (I)

Good writing uses exact and vivid words. You always impress your readers with the words that say exactly what you mean. Read the following sentences and notice the difference in meaning.

He looked at my watch.

He gazed at my watch.

He stared at my watch.

He glanced at my watch.

  • Word Choice (II)

Not only colorful verbs but also specific nouns or adjectives can help your writing. Instead of using some general words, such as job, car, or person, use more specific ones:

job → an English teacher at Shihlin High School

car → a four-door, Toyota station wagon

person → a blonde at the party

The more specific your words, the sharper your meaning.

全國高職應外科教師研習

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寫作原則的閱讀手法二
  • A. Sentence variety

1. Variety in sentence length: subordination

    • Poor and Faulty: This employee is often late for work. He writes poor reports. He is a poor manager. He should be fired.
    • Revised: Because this employee is often late for work, writes poor reports and is a poor manager, he should be fired.
    • Poor and Faulty: This is the letter. Abraham Lincoln wrote to the mother. The mother lost five sons in the civil war.
    • Revised: This is the letter written by Abraham Lincoln to the mother who lost fives sons in the civil war.

2. Variety in word order

    • A strict but devoted teacher, Mr. Chen is admired by all of his students.
    • For me, a handwritten letter is warm and an email is cold.
    • Nowadays, few people write letters.
    • The original letter, unfortunately, has been lost.

全國高職應外科教師研習

how to convert the outer speech into inner speech
How to convert the outer speech into inner speech?
  • I still shudder with the same agony when I remember seeing the corpse with black finger marks of strangulation upon his neck. (Frankenstein)

→I still shudder with tears when I remember witnessing the poor dog beaten to death by his master.

全國高職應外科教師研習

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寫作原則的閱讀手法三
  • Transitions:

Transitions serve a function of showing directions in your writing.

Four techniques of transitions:

(1) Repetition of an important word

(2) Pronouns that refer to earlier key nouns

(3) Transitional expressions

(4) Parallelism.

全國高職應外科教師研習

example 4
Example #4
  • Many people say that e-mail is just a faster way to deliver letters. The fact is that letter writing and e-mail are completely different processes. Handwritten or typed, letters travel in envelopes through actual space and take time getting from one place to another. 41 If I am writing on paper to my brother in Kenya, I will be less likely to complain about the breakfast I had this morning. I will probably write about my relationships and some things that I’ve been thinking about. 42 People tend to regard letters as important. My brother might save my letter; he might read it back to me years from now.
  • 43 It is instant, traveling from point to point. If you don’t print it out, the message doesn’t physically exist. With e-mail, geography is no obstacle and time is not important. 44 The ease of this kind of writing and sending probably makes for a different kind of communication. I can complain about the breakfast I had this morning or rattle on about friends and movies. That is because I am not so focused on style and profundity. 45 My brother might glance at my mail, have a laugh, and then delete it.
  • (A) E-mail is different.
  • (B) The downside is, I might be less likely to say something deeper.
  • (C) The time and distance, as a matter of fact, influence the letter-writer.
  • (D) I can zap a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and it gets there almost in a second.
  • (E) I will also take more care with my style, trying to write in a way that is interesting and worth reading.

(CEADB)

全國高職應外科教師研習

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寫作原則的閱讀手法四
  • Topic sentence
    • In English writing, a paragraph is a series of sentences about one idea called the topic. Consisting of four to eight sentences, a paragraph begins with an indentation and with a general sentence that introduces this topic.
  • Paragraph unity
    • Each paragraph in an essay requires external unity and internal unity. External unity means that a paragraph is closely related to all the other paragraphs in an essay. But each paragraph also needs internal unity. Internal unity occurs when all the sentences in a paragraph directly support the topic idea.
  • Paragraph coherence
    • A readable paragraph must be coherent; all the sentences stick together.
    • some of these ordering patterns.

1. general-to-specific order

2. specific-to-general order

3. emphatic order

4. spatial order

5. chronological order

全國高職應外科教師研習

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重要:篇章結構的分析Textual Relationshipsquoted from Yu, Hsueh-ying “Discourse Grammar for Academic Reading: Textual Relationships”
  • General-example(s)
  • General-specific(s)
  • Group-member
  • Problem-solution
  • Questions-answer
  • Cause-effect
  • Time sequence
  • Claim-counterclaim

全國高職應外科教師研習

example 5 life of pi
Example #5: Life of Pi

To me, it was paradise on earth. I have nothing but the fondest memories of growing up in a zoo. I lived the life of a prince. What maharaja’s son had such vast, luxuriant grounds to play about? What palace has such a menagerie? My alarm clock during my childhood was a pride of lions. They were no Swiss clocks, but the lions could be counted upon to roar their heads off between five-thirty and six every morning. Breakfast was punctuated by the shrieks and cries of howler monkeys,….

全國高職應外科教師研習

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從寫作到閱讀
  • Word choice → learning vocabulary
  • Sentence variety→ sentence patterns
  • Transitions → meaning and structure
  • Paragraph writing →meaning and culture
  • Essay → context, logics, and meaning (global questions)

全國高職應外科教師研習

example 6
Example #6: 語言的邏輯關係

The ability to create is one of the outstanding features of human beings. However, scientific understanding of creativity is far from complete. Many people believe that only a handful of geniuses are capable of making creative contributions to humanity, but this just isn't true. Creative thinking is quite normal in human beings and can be observed in almost all mental activities. However, intelligence is not always a necessary part of creativity. During World War II, U.S. military leaders discovered that pilots with high IQ’s were not always creative fighters.

──南一課本第四冊“Unleashing Creativity”

全國高職應外科教師研習

harry potter and the deathly hallow
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallow
  • The two men appeared out of nowhere, / a few yards apart / in the narrow, moonlit lane./ For a second / they stood quite still,/ wands directed at / each other’s chests;/ then, / recognising each other, / they stowed their wands / beneath their cloaks/ and started walking briskly / in the same direction.

全國高職應外科教師研習

slide28
閱讀與寫作教學:邏輯思維與修辭
  • 文法句型的認知
  • 單字與用詞的選擇
  • 閱讀語感的轉化
  • 語言的內在邏輯:主詞動詞、連結與轉折
  • 小說閱讀:語言內化的場域

全國高職應外科教師研習

da vinci code
Da Vinci Code
  • Crouching in the shadows of the choir balcony / high above the altar, / Sister Sandrine peered silently / through the balustrade / at the cloaked monk / kneeling alone. / The sudden dread in her soul / made it hard to stay still. / For a fleeting instant, / she wondered / if this mysterious visitor could be the enemy / they had warned her about, / and if tonight she would have to / carry out the orders / she had been holding all these years. / She decided to stay there in the darkness / and watch his every move.
  • (蹲在唱詩班包廂的陰暗處,/ 就在祭壇的上方處,/ Sister Sandrine靜靜地偷看,/ 透過欄杆,/ 那位穿著斗篷的修士,/ 孤獨地跪在那。/ 內心突然的恐懼,/ 讓她很難維持平靜。/ 刹那間,/ 她懷疑,/ 是否這個神祕的訪客可能是敵人,/ 他們警告過她的;/ 是否今晚,她必須執行命令,/ 這幾年來所奉行的。/ 她決定留在黑暗中,觀看他的一舉一動。)

全國高職應外科教師研習

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英外科寫作課程的幾點思維:語言內化的做法
  • 結合閱讀的課程規劃
  • 閱讀教材的選擇
    • 長篇閱讀的重要性
  • 閱讀的產出:寫作
    • 摘要寫作
    • 動詞的使用

全國高職應外科教師研習

slide31
幾個寫作範例:控制寫作(句法、動詞)
  • 敘述文類
    • 故事摘要
    • 精密寫作
  • 描述文類
    • 精確寫作
    • 重點
  • 論說文類
  • 說明文類

全國高職應外科教師研習

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敬請指教!

全國高職應外科教師研習