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European Co mmission Unit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption. The Landfill Directive Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/landfill_index.htm. Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006. Growing technosphere. Extraction: 16 tons.

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The Landfill Directive Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste


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    1. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption The Landfill DirectiveCouncil Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/landfill_index.htm Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    2. Growing technosphere Extraction: 16 tons To physical stock: 10 tons Disposal: 6 tons Source Sink Environment What is the Issue ? 2 t/cap CO2 3.5 t/cap waste 0.5 t/cap agr waste Threats to ecosystem services

    3. The Vision: integrating Resources, Products and Waste Policies Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Use of Resources Thematic Strategy on the Prevention and Recycling of waste EU 6th ENV Action Programme IntegratedProductPolicy / SustainableProduction&Consumption Similar policies: Circular Economy, 3Rs, SMM (OECD)

    4. Better eco-efficiency: more value per impact Decoupling resource use from economic growth: “ more value per kilogram “ Decoupling environmental impact from resource use “ less impacts per kilogram “ Objective: Decoupling Economic activity (GDP) Resource use (kg, km2, kW…) Environmental impact (“indicators”) 2005 2030

    5. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Framework Legislation Waste Framework Dir. (Dir.2006/12/EC, formerly 75/442/EEC) Under revision Hazardous Waste Directive Dir.91/689/EEC Waste Shipment Regulation (Reg. (EEC) 259/93) Just revised – Reg. (EC) 1013/2006 Waste Treatment Operations Incineration 89/369 & 429 (MW) 94/67 (HW) Replaced by 2000/76/EC Recycling EU Standards, …, as part of Recycling Strategy Landfill 99/31/EC Waste Streams Waste oils Dir 75/439/EEC Titanium Dioxide Dir 78/176/EEC Sewage Sludge Dir. 86/278/EEC Batteries and Accumulators Dir. 91/157/EEC & 93/86/EEC COM(2003)723 Packaging and Packaging Waste Dir. 94/62/EC PCBs Dir.96/59/EC End-of-life Vehicles Dir 2000/53 EC Waste electric and electronic equipment Dir.2002/95EC Restriction of Hazardous Substances Dir.2002/95EC Mining Waste Dir 2006/21/EC Up-date in 2007 repeal with WFD revision Simplify in 2006 New proposal in co-decision Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    6. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Waste Treatment Operations • INCINERATION • (2000/76/EC) • Covers MW and HW • Covers incineration and co-incineration • Permitting • Emission limit values (air, water) • Management of residues • Recovery of energy • LANDFILL • (1999/31/EC) • Permitting system • Control procedures • Technical requirements • Reduction of landfill of biodegradable waste • Collection of methane and energy recovery • Internalisation of costs • Interdiction of co-disposal Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    7. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Objectives • To prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects from the landfilling of waste on • the environment • the global environment • human health Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    8. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Key elements of the Directive 3 classes of landfill: (No co-disposal !) • landfills for hazardous waste • landfills for non-hazardous waste • landfills for inert waste Obligation to treat waste before landfilling Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    9. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Key elements(continued) Permit, control and monitoring requirements: - content of authorisation request - conditions for authorisation - financial security - monitoring of water and gas emissions (operation phase/after-care phase) Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    10. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Key elements(continued) Ban of certain wastes: • 2003 whole tyres, 2006 shredded tyres • liquid waste • explosive, corrosive, oxidising, flammable waste • infectious hospital and veterinary waste • waste not meeting acceptance criteria Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    11. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Key elements (continued) Reduction targets for the landfilling of biodegradable waste (based on data for 1995): • 75 % by 2006 • 50 % by 2009 • 35 % by 2016 The 2016 target already reached by AT, BE, DK, DE, NL and SE. The 2009 target reached by FR, IT and FI are close to it. The 2006 target has not been reached by ES, PT, IE. UK second worst after Greece. Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    12. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Art. 5 Strategy on biodegradable waste • Figure 3. Biodegradable municipal waste distance to target, 2002 • (Excluding Luxembourg and the Belgium regions Wallonia and Brussels)

    13. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Art. 5 Strategy on biodegradable waste • Figure 2a. Tonnes of biodegradable municipal waste Landfilled, 2001-2003

    14. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Art. 5 Strategy on biodegradable waste

    15. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Technical Annexes • Annex I: General requirements (location, protection of soil/water) • Annex II: Waste acceptance criteria for landfills (general principles, preliminary criteria) • Annex III: Control and monitoring (water, leachate, gas) Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    16. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste • The principles are set out in Art 11. Detailed rules about standardisation of control, sampling and analysis methods are set out in a separate Council Decision. • There is little transparency about how waste acceptance criteria are applied in different MS. • There is no knowledge about how criteria are applied in the new Member States. Waste acceptance procedure, Art. 11 Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    17. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Decision on waste acceptance criteria and procedures (2003/33/EC) • Objective: landfill only waste that is compatible with the protection afforded by each landfill class. • Acceptance procedure: what information to collect, when to test. • Acceptance criteria: limit values and/or lists of waste acceptable at a specific landfill class. • List of test and sampling methods to be used (developed by CEN). Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    18. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Waste acceptance criteria(continued) Procedure • Basic characterisation (including sampling) • Compliance testing • On-site verification • Criteria for three landfill classes, including underground storage. • Higher limit values may be authorised for some parameters under certain conditions (case by case decision, no additional risk) Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    19. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste Existing landfills • Main Problems: • Landfills for non-hazardous waste and inert waste do often not comply. • No comprehensive data from Member States. • Too many unauthorized landfills (horizontal cases against some Member States.) Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    20. European CommissionUnit ENV G4, Sustainable Production and Consumption Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste FACTS AND FIGURES ON LANDFILLS • Total municipal waste going to landfills (EU-25 average): 49% (in some countries 90%). • Although waste generation is growing in parallel with GDP, in EU-25 by 19% between 1995 and 2003, waste landfilled goes slightly down. • Number of existing landfills in EU-15: hazardous waste: 504 (141 comply) non-hazardous waste: 6286 (1267 comply) inert waste: 3416 (925 comply) (No figures from UK, Denmark. Czech. Rep. on compliance). Full compliance to be achieved until 16 July 2009. • Trend since implementation: number of permitted landfills declines/ - quantity of wastes, including biodegradable declines/ - landfills improve technically Helmut Maurer, 7 December 2006

    21. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Existing landfills • Figure 4a. Landfills for hazardous waste; total and complying with the directive

    22. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Existing landfills • Landfills for non-hazardous waste; total and complying with the directive

    23. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Enforcement • Infringement proceedings Art. 226 EC • Letter of formal notice • Reasoned opinion • Infringement proceedings Art. 228 EC • Lump sum or penalty depend on: • Seriousness of infringement (factor x) • Duration (factor x) • Deterrent effect (factor x) • daily penalties of 140.000€ or a lump sum of 20.Mio € are not uncommon

    24. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Questions in infringement procedures COM/France C-423/05 • Interpretation of Art. 14 Dir. 1999/31/EC • Art. 8 Directive on waste 2006/12/EC • Art. 4 Directive on waste 2006/12/EC • Art. 9 Directive on waste 2006/12/EC

    25. Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Questions in infringement proceduresC- 494/01 Ireland • Failure to comply with Art. 4,5,6,8,9,10,12,13,14 Directive 2006/12/EC on waste • Failure to comply with Art. 10 EC by unsatisfactorily responding to a request for information

    26. IE: C-494/01persistent failure to transpose UK: C-62/03 on failure to transpose WFD IT: C-270/03 and subsequent Art 228 letter for wrongly exempting waste collectors. C-135/05 of 26 April 2007 IT: preliminary ruling –Niselli C-456/02 on waste definition 4 Art. 228 cases C-383/02, C-516/03,C-375/02,C-447/03 mostly on breach of Art. 4 and 8 WFD EL: C-387/97 Kouroupitos landfill (leading case) 228 procedure C-112/06 on the same substance C-502/03 for > 1000 illegal sites ES: C-157/04 La Gomera C-446/01 FR: C-172/04; C-423/05 of 29 March 2007 for unauthorized landfills DE: C-6/03 relevant for interpreting of Art. 5 LD Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Questions in infringement proceduresreferences to some relevant case law.

    27. Landfill Awareness Raising events 2007Conclusions • Insufficient implementation of Directive and Decision • Polluter pays principle not observed • No pre-treatment • Predominance of landfilling • High numbers of uncontrolled dumps • Low coverage through collection systems • No separation at source • Low administrative capacity • Too little investment • Profound lack of public awareness